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Chapter 11 APUSH
Terms in this set (16)
*Second Great Awakening
Religious rivival, individual responsibility, people can improve themselves and society
Revivalism in New York(1828) Prebyterian minister Charles G.Finney started a series of rivals in New York. Finney have sermons that appealed to people's emotions and fear of damnation. He preached about faith and hard work leading to salvation, because of his influence New York became known as "burned over district"
Baptists and Methodists- in the south, baptists and Methodists preachers attracted 1000s of people to hear dramatic preaching. by 1850, baptist and Methodists were the largest Protestant denominations in the country.
Millennialism- William Miller gained followers when he predicted the second coming of Jesus on Oct 21, 1844. Millerites continued as a new Christian denomination, The Seventh Day Adventists
Mormons- founded by Joseph Smith in 1830. Smith was murdered by a mob. To escape persecution Brigham Young migrated the Mormons to the western frontier. New Zion- Mormon religious community. Polygamy- a man having more than one wife aroused the hostility of the US government
*Transcendalists- 19th century artists and writers expressed romanticism- emphasis on feelings acts of heroism, & study of nature. It was expressed by Transcendalists. They suggested that artistic expression was more important than the pursuit of wealth. Transcendalists supported the antislavery movement.
Ralph Waldo Emerson(1803-1882)- best known Transcendalist. Essays and lectures expressed individualistic and nationalistic spirit of Americans & urged people to create a distinctive American culture.
Henry David Thoreau(1817-1882)- Transcendalist. Lived for 2 years in a cabin in the woods, used observations of nature to discover truths about life & universe. Published his book "Walden"(1854). Remembered as a pioneer ecologist and conversationalist. Through his essay "On Civil Disobediance" Theoreau proved to nonviolent protest. The is essay & his protest inspired other nonviolent protests like Ghandi & MLK
Brook Farm- community of people lived the Transcendalist ideal 1841 George Ripley launched this at Brook Farm. His goal was to achieve "a more natural union between intellectual & manual labor." Ended in 1894 but was remembered for it's atmosphere of artistic creativity, school, and it's appeal to New England.
*Communalists Experiments- there were over 100 ideal communities created during the antebellum, though they were short lived, these "backwoods Utopias" reflect the diversity of the reform ideas of the time.
Shakers- religious communal movements. Had about 6,000 members by the 1840s kept women and men seperate(forbidding marriage & sexual relations). They died out by mid 1900s because of no new recruits.
The Amana Colonies- the Amana colonies in Iowa were Germans who belonged to the religious reform movement known as Pietism. Their communities continue to prosper even though they don't practice their communal ways of living.
New Harmony- secular(nonreligious experiment) in Indiana, was the work of Robert Owen. He hoped his utopian socialist community would provide an answer o inequity & alienation caused by the Industrial Revolution. It failed & ended as a result of both financial problems & disagreements among members of the community.
Oneida Community- John Humphrey Noyes started the community in 1848 New York. dedicated to an ideal perfect an social, economic equality. Critics attacked but the community prospered economically by producing & selling silverware of excellent quality.
Fourier Phalanxes- in 1840s Charles Fourier. He advocated that people share work & housing in communities known as Fourier Phalanxes. Died out because American were too individualistic to live communally
*Arts & Literature- the democratic and reforming impulses of the Age of Jackson expressed them selves in painting, architecture, & literature.
Painting- genre painting, portraying the everyday life of ordinary people, became the vogue of artists in the 1830s
Architecture- American architects adapted Greek styles to glorify the democratic spirit of the republic.
Literature- as a result of the War of 1812, the American People became more nationalistic and eager to read the work of American writers about American Themes.
*Temperance- rate of alcohol consumption was 5 gallons of hard liquor per person in 1820. Reformers targeted alcohol as the cause of social ills and explains why temperance became the most popular of the reform movements.
In 1826, people concerned with drinking & it's effects created the American Temperance Society. In 1840, a group of recovering alcoholics formed the Washingtonians & argued that alcoholism was a disease.
When it became clear that Temprance movements were stopping crime, poverty and was increasing workers output, factory owners and politicians joined. Maine was the first states to prohibit the manufacture & sale of intoxicating liquors. The movement achieved success with the passing of the 18th amendment in 1919.
Was horrified to find mentally ill persons locked up with criminals in unsanitary cells. She started reforms. In the 1840s state legislatures began building new mental hospitals & improving the conditions at the older ones.
School for the blind & the deaf
Thomas Galludet opened a school for the deaf. Dr.Samuel Gridley opened a school for the blind. By the 1850s there were more schools modeled after these in more states of the union.
Pennsylvania took the lead in prison refinement building new prisons called penitentiaries. Some prisons offered teaching of moral instruction while giving discipline.
Opened common (public) schools.
Mann & other reformers wanted to teach not only literacy but also moral principles. William Holmes McGuffey created textbooks that were used for the schools. He textbooks taught principles needed in the industrial revolution. Since the schools were mostly Protestant the Roman Catholics created their own schools.
The enthusiasm of the second great awakening helped fuel the creation of private colleges. Education was used to helped uneducated individuals make wise decisions about government
Cult of Domesticity
When men were him they often were the ones who gave the orders. But when they left, woman were able to lead the household. The idealized view of women as moral leaders in the home became known as the Cult of Domesticity.
Two sisters, Sarah and Angela Grimke opposed men participating in their antislavery activities. Sarah Grimke wrote her Letter of Woman and Equality of the Sexes (1837)
Seneca Falls Convention(1848)
The leading feminists met here. It was the first real woman rights convention in American history. Their "Declaration of Sentiments" declared "that all men & woman are created equal"
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony led other reforms for women's rights .
the second great awakening caused Christians to view slavery as a sin.
American Colonization Society
The idea of transporting freed slaves to an African colony was tried in 1817 by the American Colonization Society. Monrovia was a colony named after James Monroe in Africa.
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