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Midterm Review, Campaign Finances
Terms in this set (11)
Why does partisan voting matter?
1. Potential primary entrants should run more frequently in districts where party support is high since the eventual nominee's chances of winning the general election are greater.
2. Interest groups and financial contributors are also usually eager to lend assistance when success is considered likely.
What 4 things did the Federal Election Campaign Act do?
1. Created the Federal Election Commission (FEC), under the 1971 law this authority was split between Congressional officers and the General Accounting Office (GAO)
2. Provided for public financing of Presidential candidates
3. Enacted strict limits on both contributions and expenditures. These limits applied to all federal candidates and political committees influencing federal elections.
3. Allowed corporations and unions to establish and operate Political Action Committees (PACs), which allowed them to use money to solicit individual contributions. These voluntary donations could then be contributed to federal elections.
What 3 important rulings did the court make in Buckley V. Valeo?
1. Limiting campaign expenditures violated the First Amendment
2. Limiting campaign contributions were constitutional, because the government has a vested interest in preventing corruption.
3. Disclosure requirements also violated the First Amendment, because "disclosure, in itself, can seriously infringe on privacy of association." However, since the
government also has a vested interest in preventing corruption....
(1) Only required to report contributions that are earmarked for political purposes
(2) Only required to report expenditures for communications that expressly advocate for election/defeat
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act-
McCain-Feingold considered these ads "electioneering communications" and as such, may no longer be funded by corporations or labor organizations.
1. The communication refers to a clearly identified candidate for federal office.
2. The communication is publicly distributed on radio or television for a fee.
3. The communication is distributed within 30 days prior to a primary or 60 days prior to a general election.
4. The communication is targeted to the relevant electorate - i.e., it can be received by 50,000 or more people in the district or state where the candidate is running for federal office.
3 categories of state campaign finance efforts are...
2. Contribution Limits
3. Public Financing
All states require some level of disclosure from candidates,
committees, and political parties of the amount and source of contributions and expenditures.
The states vary in the detail required in disclosures and in the frequency of reporting.
Nationwide, the limit on the average amount an individual
can give to a gubernatorial candidate is about $7, 500 per cycle. For legislative candidates, the limit is around $3, 300 per cycle for House candidates and $3, 700 for Senate candidates.
Four states have no limits (Missouri, Oregon, Utah, and Virginia)
Twenty-four states currently give grants of state funds to candidates and/or political parties for their campaigns.
In these states, candidates who take the money agree to (1) spending limits and (2) limit or cease raising private contributions.
Citizens' United Case
1. Under the First amendment, corporate funding of independent political broadcasts in candidate elections cannot be limited.
2. BRCA's disclosure requirements are constitutional, because the government has an interest in providing the "electorate with information" about election-related spending resources.
3. Finally, the court upheld the ban on direct contributions to candidates from corporations and unions.
Citizens' United has been felt in the states...
Prior to Citizens' United, 24 states prohibited or restricted corporate and/or union spending on candidate elections. All these laws have to change. Of these, 11 states immediately changed their laws.
Recommended textbook explanations
Magruder's American Government
United States Government: Our Democracy
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TEKS United States Government
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