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Dr Yordy Exam 2
Terms in this set (38)
No Oxy Anaerobic--Cytoplasm-- Net ATP 2---Pyruvate 2 --electrons carried by NADH --
Anaerobic and Aerobic Fate of Pyruvate
Anaerobic --Lactic acid- necessary to regenerate NAD + -----Aerobic -- Pyruvate converted into Acetyl CoA which is channeled into the Krebs cycle
Krebs cycle (citric acid)
aerobic OXYGEN Yes Location mitochondrial matrix,Yield 2GTP= ATP ,Products CO2 electrons carried by NADH FADH2
Oxygen yes ,Location Inner membrane,Mitochondrial cristae Product H2o, net yeild 34 ATP
You should be able to list characteristics of Enzymes
1.specific shape (tertiary conformation- active site)
2 Catalyst lower rate of activation speeds up reaction
5 have optimal PH and Temp
Release of electron in a chemical reaction
when electrons are gained in a chemical reaction
oxidation and reduction always accompany each other
Substrate level phosphorylation
The mode of ATP synthesis in Glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, when ATP is produced by ADP picking up a phosphate
Why is ATP the energy currency of the cell
When the body breaks materials down for energy, the energy is stored in the bonds of ATP. When energy is needed, the body breaks down the ATP to release the energy available ( ATP is used in the production of new ATP)
ATP, ADP, AMP
ATP has 3 phosphates while ADP only has 2. The third phosphate in ATP is extremely energized and when it is broken down and energy is released, we are left with ADP. ( AMP is nucleotide found in RNA that can be produced during ATP Synthesis and can be consumed in the Synthesis of ATP)
Membrane JUNCTIONS tight junctions
These are impermeable and serve as a barrier. One ex. Blood/brain barrier which prevents certain materials from entering the brain or Stomach
Desmosome (adherence) junctions
These junctions help cells to adhere to one another and occur in distendable organs that respond to stretch. These occur in epithelial tissue SKIN -- also bladder
Gap Junctions (communication )
These junctions include a channel for quick communication. these are found in tissues and organs where all of the cells need to do the exact same thing at the same time,such as the Heart pumping Atria and Ventricles .
voltage difference B/w interior and exterior of a cell
membrane potential when neuron is not stimulated
when a cells membrane potential is increased gradually by repeated local responses until it reaches threshold.
membrane potential to which membrane must be depolarized to initiate a action potential ( mini voltage necessary to generate a action potential)
when membrane potential becomes more positive ( at resting potential, membrane potential is polarized) occurs because of Na+ ion influx excitatory
after action potential reaches peak ( max voltage is reached )
Na+ channels snap shut, and K+ ion Efflux occurs as the membrane potential returns to resting ( there is a brief period of hyperpolarization before resting membrane is reached)
Voltage/ Sensitive Channels
opens and closes based on the membrane potential
As membrane potential increases and Na+ ions enter the neuron influx occuring
A decrease in membrane potential as Na+ channels snap shut and K+ channels open and exit the cell
Relative Refractory Period
Can stimulate to generate a response, but stimulation needs to be greater than usual because neuron is hyperpolarized and has further to go to reach threshold. (hyperpolarization is inhibitory)
Absolute Refractory Period
Is no matter how hard you stimulate the neuron it will not respond because the Na+ gates are shut.
occurs when a neuron has a myelin sheath and the action potential jumps from node of ranvier to node, which increases the rate.
Excitability of a Cell is Affected by change in the MP
If the membrane potential dips below resting, its excitability decreases (It is inhibited). As MP increases above resting it becomes more and more excitable until it reaches threshold.
Space between neuron in which they communicate. (either excitatory or inhibitory)
Pre- and Post - Synaptic Cell:
Neurons on either side of synapse
Receptor/ Sensitive Channel
A channel that has a receptor which causes it to open and close when complimentary messages are received
IPSP: Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential
A inhibitory signal on the post synaptic cell membrane. It is a hyperpolarizing event.
EPSP: excitatory post synaptic potential
A depolarizing event (brings membrane potential closer to threshold) No single EPSP is enough to bring a post synaptic cell to threshold
GPSP: Grand Post synaptic potential
Sum of IPSP and EPSP
time that message spends in synapse
:SPACIAL summation add events (convergence and divergence ) together
Three things that contribute to a membrane potential with a resting potential - 70 mv
1 sodium /potassium pump 2 unequal diffusion of Na+/K+. 3. net - charge of large proteins trapped inside cell.
divergent pathway neuron-neuron
one presynaptic neuron branches to affect a larger number of postsynaptic neurons
many presynaptic neurons converge to influence a smaller number of postsynaptic neurons
This set is often in folders with...
Learning Objectives 7.B
Learning Objectives 7.C
Nucleic Acid Structure
Learning Objectives 8
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