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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Note Card Final 2021
Honors Chapters 11-15
Terms in this set (47)
Allied Powers (WWI)
France, Great Britain, Russia, United States, Japan, and Italy
In World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies.
A form of warfare developed to neutralize the new technologies of the Great War
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
Election of 1916
Wilson was anti-war Hughes was pro-war. Wilson won by a little more than 3 percent vote.
Zimmermann Note (1917)
Secret German message to Mexico (intercepted by the US) which offered to return to Mexico the lands it lost in the Mexican-American War.
Selective Service Act of 1917
Law passed by Congress that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
About 2 million Americans went to France as members of this under General John J. Pershing. Included the regular army, the National Guard, and the new larger force of volunteers and draftees and they served as individuals
New weapons of WWI
rapid fire machine gun, poison gas, submarines, and tanks
War Industries Board
Government agency established to coordinate the purchase of war supplies during World War I.
Committee on Public Information
Organization also known as the Creel Commission which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Enacted to impose harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S participation in WW1
Women in WWI at Home
Took up jobs: Railroad, docks, factories, built ships and airplanes
Nurses- help injured
"Hello Girls"- worked at keeping communication open by serving as switchboard operators in France
Spanish Flu Pandemic
Led to upwards of 40 million deaths worldwide
The war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations.
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
Treaty of Versailles
Imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans, to take blame for war, and weakened Germany
Red Scare (1919-1920)
Fear among many Americans after World War I of Communists in particular and noncitizens in general, a reaction to the Russian Revolution, mail bombs, strikes, and riots.
Sacco and Vanzetti
Italian radicals who became symbols of the Red Scare of the 1920s; arrested (1920), tried and executed (1927) for a robbery/murder, they were believed by many to have been innocent but convicted because of their immigrant status and radical political beliefs.
Ku Klux Klan in the 1920's
it was a white supremacy, nativist, reactionary group that was against foreigners, Catholics, Jews, and blacks. They had 5 million members by 1924 and dominated the political scene in the south.
Emergency Quota Act
A government legislation that limited the number of immigrants from Europe which was set at 3% of the nationality currently in the U.S. It greatly limited the number of immigrants who could move to the U.S. And it reflected the isolationist and anti-foreign feeling in America as well as the departure from traditional American ideals.
Teapot Dome Scandal
corruption by a Harding cabinet member, who took bribes to allow oil drilling on public lands
exploded, creating millions of jobs and supporting industries. America's standard of living rose sharply, and new industries flourished while old ones dwindled. The petroleum business experienced an explosive development and the railroad industry was hard hit by the competition of automobiles.
method of purchase in which buyer makes a small down payment and then pays off the rest of the debt in regular monthly payments
the period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment
1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools
a fashionable young woman intent on enjoying herself and flouting conventional standards of behavior.
A literary and artistic movement celebrating African-American culture.
a style of music characterized by the use of improvisation
The average cost of 30 selected stocks, used to give an indication of the direction (up or down) of the stock market over time.
Stock Market Crash
Another leading component to the start of the Great Depression. The stock became very popular in the 1920's, then in 1929 in took a steep downturn and many lost their money and hope they had put in to the stock.
Causes of the Great Depression
credit buying, overproduction, less consumer spending, falling stocks
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their government war bonuses in cash
Election of 1932: candidates, issues
Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, beat the Republican, Herbert Hoover, who was running for reelection. FDR promised relief for the unemployed, help for farmers, and a balanced budget.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President - He began New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation's leader during most of WWII
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
A federal guarantee of savings bank deposits initially of up to $2500, raised to $5000 in 1934, and frequently thereafter; continues today with a limit of $100,000
Attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II
Provided work for young men 18-25 years old in flood control, planting, building parks & roads, etc.
Established and administered a system of industrial codes to control production, prices, labor relations, and trade practices
Critics of the New Deal
Huey Long, Dr. Francis Townsend, and Father Coughlin.
Court Packing Plan
President FDR's failed 1937 attempt to increase the number of US Supreme Court Justices from 9 to 15 in order to save his 2nd New Deal programs from constitutional challenges
1935, also National Labor Relations Act; granted rights to unions; allowed collective bargaining
Social Security Act
created a tax on workers and employers. That money provided monthly pensions for retired people.
Created in 1933 in order to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the mid-South, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression
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