How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

249 terms

english final

STUDY
PLAY
a noun or pronoun (along with modifiers) that follows and renames another noun or pronoun
appositive phrase
ansley, MY DAUGHTER, loves to dance
appositive phrase
group of words beginning with preposition and ending with noun or pronoun, can act as an adj. or adv.
prepositional phrase
prep. phrases must be next to the ___/___ they modify
noun/pronoun
I want a room WITH A VIEW. His house is ON THE LAKE.
prepositional phrase
infinitive plus its modifiers and objects
infinitive phrase
He likes TO EAT PEPPERONI PIZZA.
infinitive phrase
gerund plus its modifiers and objects
gerund phrase
WRITING LONG ESSAYS can be fun.
gerund phrase
participle plus its modifiers and objects
participle phrase
RUNNING DOWN THE HALL, he bumped into the principal.
participle phrase
verb acting like a noun, ends in -ing
gerund
verb acting like an adj., ends in -ing or -ed
participle
to + verb, can act like a n, adj, or adv
infinitive
READING is fun.
gerund
I have RUNNING shoes.
participle
It's the best place TO EAT.
infinitive
starts adj. dependent clauses
relative pronoun
that, which, who, whom, whose
relative pronoun
starts adv. dependent clauses (and therefore must be followed by subject and verb)
subordinating conjunction
after, since, before, while, because, although, so that, if, when, whenever, as, even though, until, unless, as if, etc.
subordinating conjunction
starts noun dependent clauses, may or may not function as part of the noun dependent clause
noun clause identifier
that, who, whether, why, what, how, when, where, whom, whoever, etc.
noun clause identifier
main clause, can stand alone, doesn't start with a relative pronoun, subordinating conjunction, or noun clause identifier
independent clause
subordinate clause, can never stand alone, starts with a relative pronoun, subordinating conjunction, or a noun clause identifier
dependent clause
usually starts with a subordinating conjunction
adverb dependent clause
We will eat WHEN THE BELL RINGS.
adverb dependent clause
usually starts with a relative pronoun
adjective dependent clause
She likes the guy WHO SITS IN FRONT OF HER.
adjective dependent clause
usually starts with a noun clause identifier
noun dependent clause
I hope THAT YOU UNDERSTAND THE EXAMPLES.
noun dependent clause
one independent clause
simple sentence
two or more independent clauses
compound sentence
one independent clause + one or more dependent clauses
complex sentence
two or more independent clauses + one or more dependent clauses
compound complex
sentence that makes a statement and ends in a period
declarative
sentence that asks a question and ends in a question mark
interrogative
sentence that gives a command and ends in a period
imperative
sentence that expresses strong feelings and ends in an exclamation point
exclamatory
sentence structure
syntax
4 terms considered when analyzing style:
diction, sentence structure, treatment of subject matter, figurative language
word that's 1 syllable in length
monosyllabic
word that's more than 1 syllable in length
polysyllabic
slang words
colloquial
conversational words
informal
literary terms
formal
antiquated terms
old-fashioned
(1.) word containing an exact meaning (ex:dress), or (2.) word containing a suggestive meaning (ex:gown)
denotative, connotative
specific words
concrete
general or conceptual words
abstract
pleasant sounding words (ex:languid, murmur)
euphonious
harsh sounding words (ex:raucous, croak)
cacophonous
sentence shorter than 5 words in length
telegraphic
sentence approximately 5 words
short
sentence approximately 18 words
medium
sentince approximately 30 words or more
long and involved
sentence that makes complete sense if brought to a close before the actual ending (ex: We reached Edmonton/ that morning/ after a turbulent flight/ and some exciting experiences.)
loose sentence
a sentence that makes sense only when the end of the sentence is reached (ex: That morning, after a turbulent flight and some exciting experiences, we reached Edmonton.)
periodic sentence
sentence in which the phrases or clauses balance each other by virtue of their likeness of structure, meaning, or length (ex: He maketh me lie down in green pastures; he leadeth me beside the still waters.)
balanced sentence
involves constructing a sentence so that the subject comes before the predicate (ex: Oranges grow in California.)
natural order of a sentence
involves constructing a sentence so that the predicate comes before the subject (ex: In California grow oranges.)
Inverted order of a sentence/ sentence inversion
divides the predicate into 2 parts with the subject coming into the middle (ex: In California oranges grow.)
split order of a sentence
a poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to one another, creating an effect of surprise and wit, or irony (ex: The apparition of these faces in the crowd;/ Petals on a wet, black bough)
juxtaposition
refers to a grammatical or structural similarity between sentences or parts of a sentence, it involves an arrangment of words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs so that elements of equal importance are equally developed and similarly phrased (ex: He was walking, running, and jumping for joy.)
parallel structure/ parallelism
a device in which words, sounds, and ideas are used more than once to enhance rhythm and creat emphasis
repetition
any information used that doesn't give credit to its source is consisdered ___
plagiarism
you ___ book titles, titles of long poems, full length texts (ex: magazines, album titles, newspaper titles)
underline
use ____ for short poems, short storeis, and article titles
quotation marks
periods and commas go ___ of end quotation marks
inside
do not cite a source in the ___ of a sentence
middle
write out numbers from ___-___, except ____
one- ninety nine, except dates
___ inch margins
1
___ spaced
double
do not ___ between paragraphs
space
for a long quotation of more than three typed lines, ___ the entire passage ___. include a ___ at the end. ___ need quotation marks. ___ shows that it's a quote.
indent, 5 spaces, citation, do not, indention
short quotations (__ lines or less) should be placed in ___ and ___
3, quotations, cited
insert a ___ on every page except the ___ page of the paper, even included on ___ page
header, first, works cited
header includes:
last name and page number of the paper
use a ___ heading, along with a ___
MLA, title
___ at the end of each bibliography entry
period
list only those sources used ___ the paper
within
the final draft must include ___ sources
6
Works Cited ___ go in quotation marks, ___ at the top of the page
does, centered
list the entries of the works cited page in ___ order according to the ___ or ___ last name.
alphabetical, author, editor
if no author is given, ___ by the ___ of the source. disregard words like ___ and ___
alphabetize, title, "A", "The"
for entries more than one line, the first line begins at the ___ margin and the rest are ___ (like an inverted ___)
left, idented, paragraph
___ space the works cited page
double
(do/do not) number entries on the works cited page
do not
do not use ___ or __ person, use ___ person
first, second, third
type in ___
12 pt. times new roman
use italics or underlining?
italics
a proper title is on the ___ margin:
left, your name, instructors name, course name, date
proper citation order?
...
where does the thesis statement go?
last sentence of the first paragraph
use ___ when paraphrasing
citations
romance employs ___ adventure and ___ emotion rather than ___ depiction of character and action
exotic, idealized, realistic
in romance events are depicted more as we ___ them to be; ___
wish, exagerrated
the hero of a romance is ___ and the villain ___
brave, bad
list the 6 conventions of romance
idealized noble characters, exagerrated or larger than life behavior, a hero's quest, supernatural or magical elements, unusual or exotic settings, incidents involving hidden or mistaken identity
the romantic hero's quest is motivated by ___, ___, or a desire for ___
love, religious faith, adventure
a romantic hero is a literary ___ referring to a character that ___ established norms and conventions, has been rejected by ___, and has the ___ as the center of his or her own existence
archetype, rejects, society, self
the romantic hero is often the ___ in the ilterary work and there is a primary focus on the character's ___ rather than his/her ___
thoughts, actions
characteristics of the romantic hero: ___- reflects, looks inward, ___ of the individual over the ___ and ___ of his/her society or institution, ___- a strong desire for or impulse to wander or travel and explore the world, ___, often feels ___ or ___ from society, may feel ___ for his actions, character is very ___ of himself- leads to a ___ which stops the character from ending ___
introspection, triumph, rules, constraints, wanderlust, melancholy, alienated/isolated, regret, critical, selfless decision, tragically
draw laughter, appeal to good emotions; involves adventures of young lovers who face obstacles and complications that threaten disaster but are overturned at the last moment to produce a happy ending
comedy
themes of cyrano:
physical appearance v inner beauty, unrequited love
foils in cyrano
cyrano v christian, cyrano- all brains, christian- all looks
the repetition of initial consonant sounds (think tongue twisters)
alliteration
a reference from literature, mythology, religion, history, science, art, etc. that the author expects the reader to understand and apply
allusion
something out of its normal time
anachronism
the repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, sentences, commonly in conjunction with parallelism
anaphora
a character or force that works against the protagonist
antagonist
a figure of speech in which a speaker directly addresses something other than a person or a person who is absent or deceased
apostrophe
a novel that recounts the youth and young adulthood ofa sensitive protagonist who is attempting to learn the nature of the world, discover its meaning and pattern, and acquire philosophy of life and the "act of living"
apprenticeship novel
words that sound similar but do not rhyme exactly (also called half rhyme, slant rhyme, or imperfect rhyme)
approximate rhyme
in a play, words spoken by a character directly to the audience or to another character but not overheard by others onstage
aside
the repetition of vowel sounds followed by different consonants in two or more stressed syllables (ex: the crAzy nEIghbor on mAIn street)
assonance
a song-like poem
ballad
a novel that deals with the development of a young person, usually from adolescence to maturity; it is frequently autobiographical
bildungsroman
poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter
blank verse
a pause in a line of verse dictated by sense or natural speech rhythm rather than by metrics
caesura
language which is perceived as harsh, rough, and unmusical
cacophony
a moral and spiritual cleansing the audience receives when watching a protagonist overcome great odds to survive (the emotional release)
catharsis
the act of creating and developing a character
characterization
tells you what traits a character has
direct characterization
reader must make conclusions about a character based on a physical description, psychological description, what he says, how he says it, what he does, what he thinks, his environment, what others say about him, his reaction to others, and their reaction to him
indirect characterization
the highest point of interest or suspense in a story, novel, or play (not to be confused with the turning point)
climax
a comic scene or event that breaks up tension in a serious scene, play, or narrative
comic relief
a struggle between opposing forces
conflict
when a character struggles with some part of himself
internal conflict
when a character struggles with some outside force, such as another character, society as a whole, nature, or a supernatural force
external conflict
the set of associations that occur to people when they hear or read a word (the "feeling" of the word)
connotation
the repetition in two or more words of final consonants in stressed syllables (ex: hid/bead)
consonance
an image or metaphor which runs throughout the work
controlling image
two consecutive lines of poetry that form a unit, often emphasized by rhyme
couplet
the literal, dictionary definition of a word
denotation
repetition of accented vowel sounds and all sounds following them in words that are close together in a poem
rhyme
the pattern of rhymed lines in a poem
rhyme scheme
musical quality in language, produced by repetition (in poems this is created by the meter)
rhythm
all of the events in a plot that take place after the complicating incident and lead up to the climax
rising action
a character which shows many different traits
round character
writing that uses humor, sometimes gentle and sometimes biting, to criticize people, ideas, or institutions in hopes of improving them
satire
writing or speech that appeals to the senses of taste, touch, sight, smell, and/or sound
sensory language
the time and place of the action; often used to create mood or used as foreshadowing
setting
a figure of speech which uses like, as, than, or resembles to make a comparison between two basically unlike subjects
simile
an event occurs that contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience
situational irony
a long speech in which a character who is alone on stage expresses private thoughts or feelings
soliloquy
a fourteen line poem written in iambic pentameter
sonnet
a character who does not change during the course of the story
static character
a conclusion that violates the expectations of the reader but in a way that is both logical and believable
suprise ending
a feeling of curiosity or uncertainty about the outcome of events
suspense
group of consecutive lines that form a single unit in a poem
stanza
an author's individual use of language, techniques, subjects, etc.
style
a character who lacks individualizing characteristics and portrays an oversimplified mental picture or judgement
stereotype
anything that stands for something else; generally a concrete object that represents something abstract
symbol
a figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent the whole thing
synechdoche
the physical arrangement of words in a sentence
syntax
a central message or insight into life revealed through the literary work. it is not a condensed summary, but rather a generalization about human beings or life that the work communicates
theme
the writer's attitude toward his or her audience or subject; expressed in adjective form
tone
the moment in the plot when all the action begins to spiral toward its end; not the same event as the climax
turning point
a work of literature, especially a play, that results in a catastrophe for the main character
tragedy
usually contributes to his own downfall through his/her hamartia/tragic flaw
tragic hero
a weakness or flaw in a hero's character
tragic flaw, hamartia
a work of fiction describing an imaginary ideal world. the term comes from Sir Thomas Moore's Utopia, written in Latin in 1516, describing a perfect political state. the word itself is a pun on two Greek words outopia, meaning "no place", and eutopia, meaning "good place"
utopia
irony in which words are u sed to suggest the opposite of what is meant
verbal irony
the ending of a story; the disengaging of the characters; the unraveling of the plot
denouement
a portrait drawn in words
description
the form of a language spoken by people in a particular region or group. pronunciation, vocabulary, and sentence structure are affected by this.
dialect
conversation between characters
dialogue
word choice. to discuss this consider the vocab. used, the appropriatenesss of the words, the vividness and effect of the language
diction
meaning, "bad place"; the term applied to accounts of imaginary worlds, usually in the future, in which present tendencies are carried out to their intensely unpleasant culmination
dystopia
a contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader knows to be true (we know something the character doesn't)
dramatic irony
the author's use of an element, character, or event to influence the reader, to further the plot, or to create irony
dramatic purpose
a character who develops and grows during the course of the story. he has changed from the person he was at the beginning
dynamic character
rhyme that occurs at the end of a line of poetry
end rhyme
continuation of a sentence from one line of a poem to the next so that closely related words fall on different lines
enjambment
a sudden understanding or realization which prior to this was not thought of or understood
epiphany
an adjective or descriptive phrase that is regularly used to characterize a person, place, or thing
epithet
a device where being indirect replaces directness to avoid unpleasantness (ex: saying someone "passed away" instead of saying "she died")
euphemism
language which strikes the ear as smooth, pleasant, and musical
euphony
the part of the work that introduces the characters, the setting, and the basic situation
exposition
a metaphor where several comparisons dealing with the same image are made
extended metaphor
writing or speech not meant to be interpreted literaly
figurative language
a section of a literary work that interrupts the sequence of events to relate an event from an earlier time
flashback
a character who is one dimensional; we see only one character trait
flat character
a character who is used to contrast another character (the character must be the same age and gender as the person he/she is contrasting)
foil
the use of clues that suggest events that have yet to occur
foreshadowing
poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme
free verse
a division or type of literature
genre
overbearing pride or self-confidence which leads a protagonist to disregard a divine warning or to violate an important moral law (often in tragedy, this causes a tragic hero's flaw)
hubris
a deliberate exaggeration or overstatement
hyperbole
line of poetry made up of five iambs
iambic pentameter
an expression peculiar to a particular language that means something different from the literal meaning of the words
idiom
the descriptive or figurative language used in literature to create word pictures for the reader
imagery
words that appeal to the sense of sight, smell, taste, touch, or sound
sensory imagery
also called the complicating incident- the event that introduces the central conflict of the story
initial incident
an insertion or interjection during a conversation or speech (usually this is the author speaking directly to the reader)
intercalary statement
rhyme that occurs within a line of poetry
internal rhyme
a reversal of normal word order
inversion
the general name given to literary techniques taht involve differences between appearance and reality, expectation and result, or meaning and intention
irony
the placement of two item (i.e. scenes, descriptions, events, etc.) side by side for effect, emphasis or contrast
juxtaposition
saying less than is actually meant, generally in an ironic way; understatement
litote
poetry that expresses a speakers' emotions or thoughts and does not tell a story
lyric poetry
a figure of epech in which one thing is poken of as though it were something else- this comparison is implied rather than stated
metaphor
a generally regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry
meter
a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substitutedfor that of another closely associated with it
metonomy
a speech give by one character in a story, play, or poem
monologue
the feeling created in the reader
mood
the lesson or principle contained in or taught by the work; a precisely expressed concept or truth
moral
a recurring feature in a work that holds some significance
motif
a reason that explains or partially explains a character's thoughts, actions, feelings, or behavior
motivation
the use of words that imitate sound
onomatopoeia
a figure of speech that combines two opposing or contradictory ideas (ex: a cold heat)
oxymoron
a statement that seems contradictory or absurd but that expresses the truth
paradox
the repetition of a grammatical structure
parallelism
a work done in imitation of another, usually in order to mock it
parody
a figure of speech in which human characteristics are given to non-human things
personification
writing or speech that attempts to convince the reader to adopt a particular opinion or course of action and then do something
persuasion
the sequence of events in a story
plot
the way a story is told
point of view
a major character tells the story, chiefly about himself
first person participant
a minor character tells a story that focuses on someone other than himself
first person observer
an author tells the story and can enter the mind of any and all characters, thus a reader knows what any and/or all of them think
third person omniscient
an author tells a story with the focus on one character. readers know the thoughts of only this one character and only can know scene where this character is present
third person limited omniscient
an extremely limitied point of view where the narrator is a mere observer and can only tell the actions and words of the characters
dramatic objective
the ordinary form of written language; the opposite of poetry
prose
the main character in a literary work
protagonist
a play on words based on the different meanings of one word or two words that have similar sounds
pun
a stanza or poem consisting of four lines
quatrain
a repeated word, phrase, line, or group of lines in poetry
refrain
the use, more than once, of any element of language- a sound, figure of speech, word, phrase, clause, or sentence
repetition
the presentation of ideas in clear, precise language; the art of persuasion
rhetoric
i will eat WHEN THE BELL RINGS
adv dep cl
she likes the guy WHO SITS IN FRONT OF HER
adj dep cl
i hope THAT YOU UNDERSTAND THE EXAMPLES.
n dep cl
ansley, MY DAUGHTER, loves to dance
app ph
i want a romm WITH A VIEW
prep ph
his house is ON THE LAKE
prep ph
he likes TO EAT PEPPERONI PIZZA
inf ph
WRITING LONG ESSAYS can be fun
ger ph
RUNNING DOWN THE HALL, he bumped into the principal.
part ph
i enjoy SHOPPING
ger
use pencils for DRAWING
ger
FRIGHTENED, i ran down the street.
part
it's an UNSPOKEN rule
part
its the best place TO EAT
inf
i need a pen TO WRITE a letter
inf
the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work.
plagiarism
a restatement of a text or passage giving the meaning in another form, as for clearness; rewording.
paraphrase
how to cite a book:
Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Print.