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a noun or pronoun (along with modifiers) that follows and renames another noun or pronoun
group of words beginning with preposition and ending with noun or pronoun, can act as an adj. or adv.
starts adv. dependent clauses (and therefore must be followed by subject and verb)
after, since, before, while, because, although, so that, if, when, whenever, as, even though, until, unless, as if, etc.
starts noun dependent clauses, may or may not function as part of the noun dependent clause
noun clause identifier
main clause, can stand alone, doesn't start with a relative pronoun, subordinating conjunction, or noun clause identifier
subordinate clause, can never stand alone, starts with a relative pronoun, subordinating conjunction, or a noun clause identifier
4 terms considered when analyzing style:
diction, sentence structure, treatment of subject matter, figurative language
(1.) word containing an exact meaning (ex:dress), or (2.) word containing a suggestive meaning (ex:gown)
sentence that makes complete sense if brought to a close before the actual ending (ex: We reached Edmonton/ that morning/ after a turbulent flight/ and some exciting experiences.)
a sentence that makes sense only when the end of the sentence is reached (ex: That morning, after a turbulent flight and some exciting experiences, we reached Edmonton.)
sentence in which the phrases or clauses balance each other by virtue of their likeness of structure, meaning, or length (ex: He maketh me lie down in green pastures; he leadeth me beside the still waters.)
involves constructing a sentence so that the subject comes before the predicate (ex: Oranges grow in California.)
natural order of a sentence
involves constructing a sentence so that the predicate comes before the subject (ex: In California grow oranges.)
Inverted order of a sentence/ sentence inversion
divides the predicate into 2 parts with the subject coming into the middle (ex: In California oranges grow.)
split order of a sentence
a poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to one another, creating an effect of surprise and wit, or irony (ex: The apparition of these faces in the crowd;/ Petals on a wet, black bough)
refers to a grammatical or structural similarity between sentences or parts of a sentence, it involves an arrangment of words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs so that elements of equal importance are equally developed and similarly phrased (ex: He was walking, running, and jumping for joy.)
parallel structure/ parallelism
a device in which words, sounds, and ideas are used more than once to enhance rhythm and creat emphasis
you ___ book titles, titles of long poems, full length texts (ex: magazines, album titles, newspaper titles)
for a long quotation of more than three typed lines, ___ the entire passage ___. include a ___ at the end. ___ need quotation marks. ___ shows that it's a quote.
indent, 5 spaces, citation, do not, indention
insert a ___ on every page except the ___ page of the paper, even included on ___ page
header, first, works cited
list the entries of the works cited page in ___ order according to the ___ or ___ last name.
alphabetical, author, editor
if no author is given, ___ by the ___ of the source. disregard words like ___ and ___
alphabetize, title, "A", "The"
for entries more than one line, the first line begins at the ___ margin and the rest are ___ (like an inverted ___)
left, idented, paragraph
romance employs ___ adventure and ___ emotion rather than ___ depiction of character and action
exotic, idealized, realistic
list the 6 conventions of romance
idealized noble characters, exagerrated or larger than life behavior, a hero's quest, supernatural or magical elements, unusual or exotic settings, incidents involving hidden or mistaken identity
the romantic hero's quest is motivated by ___, ___, or a desire for ___
love, religious faith, adventure
a romantic hero is a literary ___ referring to a character that ___ established norms and conventions, has been rejected by ___, and has the ___ as the center of his or her own existence
archetype, rejects, society, self
the romantic hero is often the ___ in the ilterary work and there is a primary focus on the character's ___ rather than his/her ___
characteristics of the romantic hero: ___- reflects, looks inward, ___ of the individual over the ___ and ___ of his/her society or institution, ___- a strong desire for or impulse to wander or travel and explore the world, ___, often feels ___ or ___ from society, may feel ___ for his actions, character is very ___ of himself- leads to a ___ which stops the character from ending ___
introspection, triumph, rules, constraints, wanderlust, melancholy, alienated/isolated, regret, critical, selfless decision, tragically
draw laughter, appeal to good emotions; involves adventures of young lovers who face obstacles and complications that threaten disaster but are overturned at the last moment to produce a happy ending
a reference from literature, mythology, religion, history, science, art, etc. that the author expects the reader to understand and apply
the repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, sentences, commonly in conjunction with parallelism
a figure of speech in which a speaker directly addresses something other than a person or a person who is absent or deceased
a novel that recounts the youth and young adulthood ofa sensitive protagonist who is attempting to learn the nature of the world, discover its meaning and pattern, and acquire philosophy of life and the "act of living"
words that sound similar but do not rhyme exactly (also called half rhyme, slant rhyme, or imperfect rhyme)
in a play, words spoken by a character directly to the audience or to another character but not overheard by others onstage
the repetition of vowel sounds followed by different consonants in two or more stressed syllables (ex: the crAzy nEIghbor on mAIn street)
a novel that deals with the development of a young person, usually from adolescence to maturity; it is frequently autobiographical
a pause in a line of verse dictated by sense or natural speech rhythm rather than by metrics
a moral and spiritual cleansing the audience receives when watching a protagonist overcome great odds to survive (the emotional release)
reader must make conclusions about a character based on a physical description, psychological description, what he says, how he says it, what he does, what he thinks, his environment, what others say about him, his reaction to others, and their reaction to him
the highest point of interest or suspense in a story, novel, or play (not to be confused with the turning point)
when a character struggles with some outside force, such as another character, society as a whole, nature, or a supernatural force
the set of associations that occur to people when they hear or read a word (the "feeling" of the word)
the repetition in two or more words of final consonants in stressed syllables (ex: hid/bead)
repetition of accented vowel sounds and all sounds following them in words that are close together in a poem
all of the events in a plot that take place after the complicating incident and lead up to the climax
writing that uses humor, sometimes gentle and sometimes biting, to criticize people, ideas, or institutions in hopes of improving them
writing or speech that appeals to the senses of taste, touch, sight, smell, and/or sound
a figure of speech which uses like, as, than, or resembles to make a comparison between two basically unlike subjects
an event occurs that contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience
a long speech in which a character who is alone on stage expresses private thoughts or feelings
a conclusion that violates the expectations of the reader but in a way that is both logical and believable
a character who lacks individualizing characteristics and portrays an oversimplified mental picture or judgement
anything that stands for something else; generally a concrete object that represents something abstract
a central message or insight into life revealed through the literary work. it is not a condensed summary, but rather a generalization about human beings or life that the work communicates
the moment in the plot when all the action begins to spiral toward its end; not the same event as the climax
a work of literature, especially a play, that results in a catastrophe for the main character
a work of fiction describing an imaginary ideal world. the term comes from Sir Thomas Moore's Utopia, written in Latin in 1516, describing a perfect political state. the word itself is a pun on two Greek words outopia, meaning "no place", and eutopia, meaning "good place"
the form of a language spoken by people in a particular region or group. pronunciation, vocabulary, and sentence structure are affected by this.
word choice. to discuss this consider the vocab. used, the appropriatenesss of the words, the vividness and effect of the language
meaning, "bad place"; the term applied to accounts of imaginary worlds, usually in the future, in which present tendencies are carried out to their intensely unpleasant culmination
a contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader knows to be true (we know something the character doesn't)
the author's use of an element, character, or event to influence the reader, to further the plot, or to create irony
a character who develops and grows during the course of the story. he has changed from the person he was at the beginning
continuation of a sentence from one line of a poem to the next so that closely related words fall on different lines
an adjective or descriptive phrase that is regularly used to characterize a person, place, or thing
a device where being indirect replaces directness to avoid unpleasantness (ex: saying someone "passed away" instead of saying "she died")
the part of the work that introduces the characters, the setting, and the basic situation
a section of a literary work that interrupts the sequence of events to relate an event from an earlier time
a character who is used to contrast another character (the character must be the same age and gender as the person he/she is contrasting)
overbearing pride or self-confidence which leads a protagonist to disregard a divine warning or to violate an important moral law (often in tragedy, this causes a tragic hero's flaw)
an expression peculiar to a particular language that means something different from the literal meaning of the words
the descriptive or figurative language used in literature to create word pictures for the reader
also called the complicating incident- the event that introduces the central conflict of the story
an insertion or interjection during a conversation or speech (usually this is the author speaking directly to the reader)
the general name given to literary techniques taht involve differences between appearance and reality, expectation and result, or meaning and intention
the placement of two item (i.e. scenes, descriptions, events, etc.) side by side for effect, emphasis or contrast
a figure of epech in which one thing is poken of as though it were something else- this comparison is implied rather than stated
a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substitutedfor that of another closely associated with it
the lesson or principle contained in or taught by the work; a precisely expressed concept or truth
a reason that explains or partially explains a character's thoughts, actions, feelings, or behavior
writing or speech that attempts to convince the reader to adopt a particular opinion or course of action and then do something
an author tells the story and can enter the mind of any and all characters, thus a reader knows what any and/or all of them think
third person omniscient
an author tells a story with the focus on one character. readers know the thoughts of only this one character and only can know scene where this character is present
third person limited omniscient
an extremely limitied point of view where the narrator is a mere observer and can only tell the actions and words of the characters
a play on words based on the different meanings of one word or two words that have similar sounds
the use, more than once, of any element of language- a sound, figure of speech, word, phrase, clause, or sentence
the unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the representation of them as one's own original work.
a restatement of a text or passage giving the meaning in another form, as for clearness; rewording.
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