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a noun or pronoun (along with modifiers) that follows and renames another noun or pronoun

appositive phrase

ansley, MY DAUGHTER, loves to dance

appositive phrase

group of words beginning with preposition and ending with noun or pronoun, can act as an adj. or adv.

prepositional phrase

prep. phrases must be next to the ___/___ they modify


I want a room WITH A VIEW. His house is ON THE LAKE.

prepositional phrase

infinitive plus its modifiers and objects

infinitive phrase


infinitive phrase

gerund plus its modifiers and objects

gerund phrase


gerund phrase

participle plus its modifiers and objects

participle phrase

RUNNING DOWN THE HALL, he bumped into the principal.

participle phrase

verb acting like a noun, ends in -ing


verb acting like an adj., ends in -ing or -ed


to + verb, can act like a n, adj, or adv


READING is fun.


I have RUNNING shoes.


It's the best place TO EAT.


starts adj. dependent clauses

relative pronoun

that, which, who, whom, whose

relative pronoun

starts adv. dependent clauses (and therefore must be followed by subject and verb)

subordinating conjunction

after, since, before, while, because, although, so that, if, when, whenever, as, even though, until, unless, as if, etc.

subordinating conjunction

starts noun dependent clauses, may or may not function as part of the noun dependent clause

noun clause identifier

that, who, whether, why, what, how, when, where, whom, whoever, etc.

noun clause identifier

main clause, can stand alone, doesn't start with a relative pronoun, subordinating conjunction, or noun clause identifier

independent clause

subordinate clause, can never stand alone, starts with a relative pronoun, subordinating conjunction, or a noun clause identifier

dependent clause

usually starts with a subordinating conjunction

adverb dependent clause


adverb dependent clause

usually starts with a relative pronoun

adjective dependent clause

She likes the guy WHO SITS IN FRONT OF HER.

adjective dependent clause

usually starts with a noun clause identifier

noun dependent clause


noun dependent clause

one independent clause

simple sentence

two or more independent clauses

compound sentence

one independent clause + one or more dependent clauses

complex sentence

two or more independent clauses + one or more dependent clauses

compound complex

sentence that makes a statement and ends in a period


sentence that asks a question and ends in a question mark


sentence that gives a command and ends in a period


sentence that expresses strong feelings and ends in an exclamation point


sentence structure


4 terms considered when analyzing style:

diction, sentence structure, treatment of subject matter, figurative language

word that's 1 syllable in length


word that's more than 1 syllable in length


slang words


conversational words


literary terms


antiquated terms


(1.) word containing an exact meaning (ex:dress), or (2.) word containing a suggestive meaning (ex:gown)

denotative, connotative

specific words


general or conceptual words


pleasant sounding words (ex:languid, murmur)


harsh sounding words (ex:raucous, croak)


sentence shorter than 5 words in length


sentence approximately 5 words


sentence approximately 18 words


sentince approximately 30 words or more

long and involved

sentence that makes complete sense if brought to a close before the actual ending (ex: We reached Edmonton/ that morning/ after a turbulent flight/ and some exciting experiences.)

loose sentence

a sentence that makes sense only when the end of the sentence is reached (ex: That morning, after a turbulent flight and some exciting experiences, we reached Edmonton.)

periodic sentence

sentence in which the phrases or clauses balance each other by virtue of their likeness of structure, meaning, or length (ex: He maketh me lie down in green pastures; he leadeth me beside the still waters.)

balanced sentence

involves constructing a sentence so that the subject comes before the predicate (ex: Oranges grow in California.)

natural order of a sentence

involves constructing a sentence so that the predicate comes before the subject (ex: In California grow oranges.)

Inverted order of a sentence/ sentence inversion

divides the predicate into 2 parts with the subject coming into the middle (ex: In California oranges grow.)

split order of a sentence

a poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to one another, creating an effect of surprise and wit, or irony (ex: The apparition of these faces in the crowd;/ Petals on a wet, black bough)


refers to a grammatical or structural similarity between sentences or parts of a sentence, it involves an arrangment of words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs so that elements of equal importance are equally developed and similarly phrased (ex: He was walking, running, and jumping for joy.)

parallel structure/ parallelism

a device in which words, sounds, and ideas are used more than once to enhance rhythm and creat emphasis


any information used that doesn't give credit to its source is consisdered ___


you ___ book titles, titles of long poems, full length texts (ex: magazines, album titles, newspaper titles)


use ____ for short poems, short storeis, and article titles

quotation marks

periods and commas go ___ of end quotation marks


do not cite a source in the ___ of a sentence


write out numbers from ___-___, except ____

one- ninety nine, except dates

___ inch margins


___ spaced


do not ___ between paragraphs


for a long quotation of more than three typed lines, ___ the entire passage ___. include a ___ at the end. ___ need quotation marks. ___ shows that it's a quote.

indent, 5 spaces, citation, do not, indention

short quotations (__ lines or less) should be placed in ___ and ___

3, quotations, cited

insert a ___ on every page except the ___ page of the paper, even included on ___ page

header, first, works cited

header includes:

last name and page number of the paper

use a ___ heading, along with a ___

MLA, title

___ at the end of each bibliography entry


list only those sources used ___ the paper


the final draft must include ___ sources


Works Cited ___ go in quotation marks, ___ at the top of the page

does, centered

list the entries of the works cited page in ___ order according to the ___ or ___ last name.

alphabetical, author, editor

if no author is given, ___ by the ___ of the source. disregard words like ___ and ___

alphabetize, title, "A", "The"

for entries more than one line, the first line begins at the ___ margin and the rest are ___ (like an inverted ___)

left, idented, paragraph

___ space the works cited page


(do/do not) number entries on the works cited page

do not

do not use ___ or __ person, use ___ person

first, second, third

type in ___

12 pt. times new roman

use italics or underlining?


a proper title is on the ___ margin:

left, your name, instructors name, course name, date

proper citation order?


where does the thesis statement go?

last sentence of the first paragraph

use ___ when paraphrasing


romance employs ___ adventure and ___ emotion rather than ___ depiction of character and action

exotic, idealized, realistic

in romance events are depicted more as we ___ them to be; ___

wish, exagerrated

the hero of a romance is ___ and the villain ___

brave, bad

list the 6 conventions of romance

idealized noble characters, exagerrated or larger than life behavior, a hero's quest, supernatural or magical elements, unusual or exotic settings, incidents involving hidden or mistaken identity

the romantic hero's quest is motivated by ___, ___, or a desire for ___

love, religious faith, adventure

a romantic hero is a literary ___ referring to a character that ___ established norms and conventions, has been rejected by ___, and has the ___ as the center of his or her own existence

archetype, rejects, society, self

the romantic hero is often the ___ in the ilterary work and there is a primary focus on the character's ___ rather than his/her ___

thoughts, actions

characteristics of the romantic hero: ___- reflects, looks inward, ___ of the individual over the ___ and ___ of his/her society or institution, ___- a strong desire for or impulse to wander or travel and explore the world, ___, often feels ___ or ___ from society, may feel ___ for his actions, character is very ___ of himself- leads to a ___ which stops the character from ending ___

introspection, triumph, rules, constraints, wanderlust, melancholy, alienated/isolated, regret, critical, selfless decision, tragically

draw laughter, appeal to good emotions; involves adventures of young lovers who face obstacles and complications that threaten disaster but are overturned at the last moment to produce a happy ending


themes of cyrano:

physical appearance v inner beauty, unrequited love

foils in cyrano

cyrano v christian, cyrano- all brains, christian- all looks

the repetition of initial consonant sounds (think tongue twisters)


a reference from literature, mythology, religion, history, science, art, etc. that the author expects the reader to understand and apply


something out of its normal time


the repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, sentences, commonly in conjunction with parallelism


a character or force that works against the protagonist


a figure of speech in which a speaker directly addresses something other than a person or a person who is absent or deceased


a novel that recounts the youth and young adulthood ofa sensitive protagonist who is attempting to learn the nature of the world, discover its meaning and pattern, and acquire philosophy of life and the "act of living"

apprenticeship novel

words that sound similar but do not rhyme exactly (also called half rhyme, slant rhyme, or imperfect rhyme)

approximate rhyme

in a play, words spoken by a character directly to the audience or to another character but not overheard by others onstage


the repetition of vowel sounds followed by different consonants in two or more stressed syllables (ex: the crAzy nEIghbor on mAIn street)


a song-like poem


a novel that deals with the development of a young person, usually from adolescence to maturity; it is frequently autobiographical


poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter

blank verse

a pause in a line of verse dictated by sense or natural speech rhythm rather than by metrics


language which is perceived as harsh, rough, and unmusical


a moral and spiritual cleansing the audience receives when watching a protagonist overcome great odds to survive (the emotional release)


the act of creating and developing a character


tells you what traits a character has

direct characterization

reader must make conclusions about a character based on a physical description, psychological description, what he says, how he says it, what he does, what he thinks, his environment, what others say about him, his reaction to others, and their reaction to him

indirect characterization

the highest point of interest or suspense in a story, novel, or play (not to be confused with the turning point)


a comic scene or event that breaks up tension in a serious scene, play, or narrative

comic relief

a struggle between opposing forces


when a character struggles with some part of himself

internal conflict

when a character struggles with some outside force, such as another character, society as a whole, nature, or a supernatural force

external conflict

the set of associations that occur to people when they hear or read a word (the "feeling" of the word)


the repetition in two or more words of final consonants in stressed syllables (ex: hid/bead)


an image or metaphor which runs throughout the work

controlling image

two consecutive lines of poetry that form a unit, often emphasized by rhyme


the literal, dictionary definition of a word


repetition of accented vowel sounds and all sounds following them in words that are close together in a poem


the pattern of rhymed lines in a poem

rhyme scheme

musical quality in language, produced by repetition (in poems this is created by the meter)


all of the events in a plot that take place after the complicating incident and lead up to the climax

rising action

a character which shows many different traits

round character

writing that uses humor, sometimes gentle and sometimes biting, to criticize people, ideas, or institutions in hopes of improving them


writing or speech that appeals to the senses of taste, touch, sight, smell, and/or sound

sensory language

the time and place of the action; often used to create mood or used as foreshadowing


a figure of speech which uses like, as, than, or resembles to make a comparison between two basically unlike subjects


an event occurs that contradicts the expectations of the characters, the reader, or the audience

situational irony

a long speech in which a character who is alone on stage expresses private thoughts or feelings


a fourteen line poem written in iambic pentameter


a character who does not change during the course of the story

static character

a conclusion that violates the expectations of the reader but in a way that is both logical and believable

suprise ending

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