A shelled, water-retaining egg that enables reptiles, birds, and egg-laying mammals to complete their life cycles on dry land
State the five characteristics that set reptiles apart from other vertebrates.
1. Covered in tough, dry scales
3. Breathe with lungs throughout their lives
4. Three-chambered heart with a ventricle that is partially divided.
5.Produce amniotic eggs covered with a leathery shell, most oviparous, some ovoviviparous
In this module, we studied birds, reptiles, and mammals. For each class, indicate whether they are ectothermic or endothermic.
Reptiles are ectothermic; birds and mammals are endothermic.
State the functions of the yolk, the allantois, and the albumen.
Yolk- provides nourishment for the embryo
Allantois- allows the embryo to breathe
Albumen- destroys pathogens that enter the egg, and supply water and amino acids to the embryo.
Reptiles have a growth-related characteristic in common with the arthropods. What is it?
They must molt because their body covering is not living tissue.
What are the two most important functions of reptile scales?
1. they prevent water loss
2. they insulate the reptile's body
These are the reptile orders that contain currently living reptiles: Rhynchocephalia, Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines.
Place the following types of reptiles into their appropriate order: a. snakes, b. tuataras, c. lizards, d. tortoises, e. alligators, f. turtles
State the six characteristics that set birds apart from other vertebrates.
2. Heart with four chambers
3. Toothless bill
4. Oviparous, laying an amniotic egg that is covered in a lime-containing shell
5. Covered with feathers
6. Most have a skeleton composed of porous, lightweight bones
A blood sample comes from the ventricle of an animal that is either an amphibian or a bird. How can you tell which?
-If the blood has a mixture of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood, it comes from an amphibian.
-If it only has one or the other, it comes from a bird.
You see some barbs from a feather. You have no idea if they came from a down feather or a contour feather. Looking at the barbs under a microscope, however, you see that there are no hooked barbules. What kind of feather is it?
A down feather
What type of feather (down or contour) is used for flight? What kind is used for insulation?
A contour feather is used for flight, while a down feather is used for insulation.
What three things (at least) did flight engineers have to learn from birds to make practical flight possible
1. The proper structure of a wing.
2. How to make strong, hollow tubes by studying bird bones.
3. How to reduce wing turbulence from birds.
Which is heavier, a bird's bone or the same size bone from an amphibian?
The amphibian's bone would be heavier.
State the five characteristics that set mammals apart from other invertebrates.
1. hair covering the skin
2. Reproduce with internal fertilization and usually viviparous.
3. Nourish their young with milk secreted from special glands.
4. Four-chambered heart.