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Biology Module 16 study guide

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Amniotic Egg
A shelled, water-retaining egg that enables reptiles, birds, and egg-laying mammals to complete their life cycles on dry land
Neurotoxin
A poison that attacks the nervous system, causing blindness, paralysis, or suffocation
Hemotoxin
A poison that attacks the red blood cells and blood vessels, destroying circulation
Endotherm
an organism that is internally warmed by a heat-generating metabolic process
Down Feathers
Feathers with smooth barbules but no hooked barbules
Contour Feathers
Feathers with hooked and smooth barbules, allowing the barbules to interlock
Placenta
A structure that allows an embryo to be nourished with the mother's blood supply
Gestation
The period of time during which an embryo develops before being born
Mammary Glands
specialized organs in mammals that produce milk to nourish the young
State the five characteristics that set reptiles apart from other vertebrates.
1. Covered in tough, dry scales
2. Ectothermic
3. Breathe with lungs throughout their lives
4. Three-chambered heart with a ventricle that is partially divided.
5.Produce amniotic eggs covered with a leathery shell, most oviparous, some ovoviviparous
In this module, we studied birds, reptiles, and mammals. For each class, indicate whether they are ectothermic or endothermic.
Reptiles are ectothermic; birds and mammals are endothermic.
Identify the parts of the amniotic egg in the module 16 study guide.
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State the functions of the yolk, the allantois, and the albumen.
Yolk- provides nourishment for the embryo
Allantois- allows the embryo to breathe
Albumen- destroys pathogens that enter the egg, and supply water and amino acids to the embryo.
Reptiles have a growth-related characteristic in common with the arthropods. What is it?
They must molt because their body covering is not living tissue.
What are the two most important functions of reptile scales?
1. they prevent water loss
2. they insulate the reptile's body
These are the reptile orders that contain currently living reptiles: Rhynchocephalia, Squamata, Crocodilia, Testudines.

Place the following types of reptiles into their appropriate order: a. snakes, b. tuataras, c. lizards, d. tortoises, e. alligators, f. turtles
a. Squamata
b. Rhynchocephalia
c. Squamata
d. Testudines
e. Crococdilia
f. Testudines
State the six characteristics that set birds apart from other vertebrates.
1. Endothermic
2. Heart with four chambers
3. Toothless bill
4. Oviparous, laying an amniotic egg that is covered in a lime-containing shell
5. Covered with feathers
6. Most have a skeleton composed of porous, lightweight bones
Do all birds fly?
No.
A blood sample comes from the ventricle of an animal that is either an amphibian or a bird. How can you tell which?
-If the blood has a mixture of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood, it comes from an amphibian.
-If it only has one or the other, it comes from a bird.
Which has a harder shell, the egg of a reptile or the egg of a bird?
The egg of a bird
You see some barbs from a feather. You have no idea if they came from a down feather or a contour feather. Looking at the barbs under a microscope, however, you see that there are no hooked barbules. What kind of feather is it?
A down feather
What type of feather (down or contour) is used for flight? What kind is used for insulation?
A contour feather is used for flight, while a down feather is used for insulation.
What is a bird actually doing when it is preening?
It is actually oiling its feathers.
What is unique about a bird's method of molting?
A bird's feathers molt in pairs.
What three things (at least) did flight engineers have to learn from birds to make practical flight possible
They learned:
1. The proper structure of a wing.
2. How to make strong, hollow tubes by studying bird bones.
3. How to reduce wing turbulence from birds.
Which is heavier, a bird's bone or the same size bone from an amphibian?
The amphibian's bone would be heavier.
State the five characteristics that set mammals apart from other invertebrates.
1. hair covering the skin
2. Reproduce with internal fertilization and usually viviparous.
3. Nourish their young with milk secreted from special glands.
4. Four-chambered heart.
5. Endothermic
What is the principal function of underhair?
Insulation
What do we usually see when we look at a mammal, underhair or guard hair?
Guard hair
Name a nonplacental mammal.
Platypus, Kangaroo.
What is the main difference between offspring born after a long gestation period and offspring born after a short gestation period?
Offspring born after a long gestation period are more developed