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Atoms to Minerals


that which has mass and occupies space


any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter

structure of an atom

nucleus made up of protons and neutrons; the electrons make up the surrounding area


the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell's activities


Positively charged particles


the particles of the nucleus that have no charge


negatively charged particles

Periodic table

A table that shows the elements, their atomic number, symbol, and average atomic mass; elements with similar chemical properties are grouped together.

ionic bond

a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion

covalent bond

a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons

metallic bond

an attraction between a positive metal ion and the electrons surrounding it


a physical combination of substances that can still be seperated


substances formed by the joining of elements through chemical bonding. every molecule of a compound is the same, cannot be seperated

elements in earth's crust

Oxygen (46%), Silicon (28%), Aluminum (8%), Iron (6%), Magnesium (4%), Calcium (2.4%), Other (5.6%)

mineral formation

molten rock, from solution, within living cells and by recrystallization.

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colorless glass made of almost pure silica

crystalline structure

the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a regular way to form a crystal

silica tetrahedron

Basic building block of silicate minerals, made up of four oxygen atoms and 1 silicon aton

mineral groups (silicates, oxides, carbonates, sulfides)

classified based on their composition


minerals that contain silicon and oxygen and usually one or more other elements


compounds that contain oxygen and an element other than silicon


are minerals that contain the element carbon and one other element


compounds that consist of one or more elements combined with sulfur


color of a streak a rock leaves


pearly, earthy, metallic


how many planes a rock breaks along

Moh's hardness scale

a scale ranking ten minerals from softest to hardest; used in testing the hardness of minerals

Major rock forming minerals

quartz, mica, feldspar, and calcite

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