28 terms

Earth Science 7- atoms and minerals

Atoms to Minerals
that which has mass and occupies space
any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
structure of an atom
nucleus made up of protons and neutrons; the electrons make up the surrounding area
the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structure that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell's activities
Positively charged particles
the particles of the nucleus that have no charge
negatively charged particles
Periodic table
A table that shows the elements, their atomic number, symbol, and average atomic mass; elements with similar chemical properties are grouped together.
ionic bond
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
covalent bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
metallic bond
an attraction between a positive metal ion and the electrons surrounding it
a physical combination of substances that can still be seperated
substances formed by the joining of elements through chemical bonding. every molecule of a compound is the same, cannot be seperated
elements in earth's crust
Oxygen (46%), Silicon (28%), Aluminum (8%), Iron (6%), Magnesium (4%), Calcium (2.4%), Other (5.6%)
mineral formation
molten rock, from solution, within living cells and by recrystallization.

Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_are_minerals_formed#ixzz1MkNsEV5t
colorless glass made of almost pure silica
crystalline structure
the arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecules in a regular way to form a crystal
silica tetrahedron
Basic building block of silicate minerals, made up of four oxygen atoms and 1 silicon aton
mineral groups (silicates, oxides, carbonates, sulfides)
classified based on their composition
minerals that contain silicon and oxygen and usually one or more other elements
compounds that contain oxygen and an element other than silicon
are minerals that contain the element carbon and one other element
compounds that consist of one or more elements combined with sulfur
color of a streak a rock leaves
pearly, earthy, metallic
how many planes a rock breaks along
Moh's hardness scale
a scale ranking ten minerals from softest to hardest; used in testing the hardness of minerals
Major rock forming minerals
quartz, mica, feldspar, and calcite