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History - Ancient Civilizations Cumulative Test
Terms in this set (76)
The region at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea (Phoenicians lived here).
The ancient home of the Hebrews (later called the Jews).
The first five books of the Hebrew Bible. It's considered to be the most scares writings in their tradition (referred to by Christians as the Old Testament).
In the Torah, God chose him to be the "father" of the Hebrew people.
The belief in only one god (ex. Judaism)
A mutual promise between God and the founder of the Hebrews in which God promises to protect the Hebrews and the Hebrews promise to pray to him and obey him.
The man who led the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt. He was raised as an Egyptian prince.
The basis for the civil and religious laws of Judaism. The Hebrews believed this formed a new covenant (God protects Hebrews and Hebrews obey 10 commandments).
The New Kingdom created when the Hebrews under Saul, David, and Solomon. For 100 years, Israel experienced its greatest period of power and independence.
The religion of the Jewish people. They believe that the most important ways to please God is to study sacred texts and teach them.
After the death of Solomon, forced labor and taxes imposed by Solomon, caused northern Israel to revolt. Southern Israel became Judah and northern Israel remained the same.
Peace money paid by a weaker power to a stronger power. Israel and Judah paid tribute to Assyria but Assyria eventually attacked and captured northern Israel. Later Babylonians conquered all of Israel.
The emphasis on right conduct and the worship of one god (Judaism --> 10 commandments).
A group of people who came from the Steppes. They are Europeans who go to India.
Dry grasslands that stretched north of the Caucasus (mountains between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea).
A group of Indo-European people that entered India. They spoke an early form of sanskrit. Aryan means noble.
Movements of a people from one region to another. Aryans migrated to India.
A group of Indo-European speakers that occupied Anatolia. The Hittite Empire dominated southwest Asia for more than 450 years.
Asia Minor. It's a huge peninsula in modern-day Turkey that juts out into the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. It's a high, rocky plateau rich in timber and agriculture.
Sacred literature to the Aryans. It's four collections of prayers, magical spells, and instructions for performing rituals. Originally, vedas weren't written, they were passed from generation to generation orally. The most important is the Rig Veda.
A collection of 1,028 hymns to Aryan gods.
The social system named by Portuguese explorers describing the Aryan social system. It's divisions evolved over time from four to over one hundred. People were born into their caste for life. Their caste determined their job, whom they could marry, and with whom they could eat with.
People at the bottom of the caste system (butchers, grave diggers, and garbage collectors). Their touch was said to endanger the ritual purity of others.
Priests who were at the top of the caste system.
One of the great epics of India. It reflects on the struggles that took place in India as the Aryans moved south. Cultural diffusion occurred between Aryans and non-Aryans.
Castes of the Aryans
Rulers and Warriors
Peasants and Traders
To get rid of completely.
To do a favor for, to supply something to satisfy a need.
To take an aspect of someone else's culture and make it your own, often using it improperly.
To give up your own identity to assume another.
To unite, to mix, to combine.
What is the Hindu concept of God?
There is one God in 3 forms (Brahma, Vishnu, Siva).
God of creation.
The God that destroys.
The God that looks after creation.
An area of land in Southwest Asia with rich farming land (Mesopotamia).
A thick bed of FERTILE mud left after the flood from the Tigris and Euphrates.
The artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops.
A city and its surrounding area that functioned similar to a modern-day independent state.
A series of rulers from a single family.
The process in which a new product or idea spreads from one culture to another.
The belief in more than one god.
Brings together several peoples, nations, or previously independent states. Sargon created the 1st empire (Akkadian).
Leader of the Babylonian Empire at its peak. He is known for his set of laws called Hammurabi's code. They were engraved in stones throughout the empire.
A society in which men have most of the important powers in the society.
Where boulders turn the Nile into rapids. Egyptians lived from the mouth of the Nile to the first cataract where it was impossible for riverboats to pass.
A broad, marshy area of land formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of the river. The delta begins 100 miles before the Nile enters the Mediterranean. The delta was a part of Lower Egypt (North).
The pharaoh who unified Upper (Southern) and Lower (Northern) Egypt.
The Egyptian god-like king that was thought of to be almost as powerful and wonderful as the gods of the heavens,
The form of government in which rule is based on religion.
The resting place for kings of the Old Kingdom. Egyptians believed that their king ruled even in the afterlife.
The embalmment and drying of the corpse to prevent it from decaying. Royal and elite Egyptian's bodies were preserved by mummification.
Developed by Egyptian scribes, it represented objects with symbols. Over time it evolved to drawings meaning sounds (like our alphabet).
Reeds that grew in the delta that formed a paper-like substance after being processed. It replaced stone writing.
Book of Dead
A collection of texts (scrolls containing hymns, prayers, and magical spells) intended to guide the soul in the afterlife.
The Indian subcontinent is the are of land include India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan. It's separated from the rest of Asia by mountain ranges (Himalayas, Hindu Kush, and Karakoram)
Seasonal winds that dominate India's climate. Winter monsoons (October-Februry) blow dry air westward across India. Summer monsoons (June-October) blow rainclouds eastward. Monsoons cause floods, but if they don't develop, they can cause drought.
The Indus Valley civilization whose accomplishments included, walls and man-made islands to prevent flooding, plumbing and sewage systems, and planned cities.
Silt (fertile soil) deposited by the Huang He. It's blown by winds from the desert.
Animal bones and tortoise shells on which priests scratched questions for the gods. Afterwards, they cracked it by applying a hot poker to it. The priests interpreted the cracks to be the gods' answers.
Mandate of Heaven
Created by the Zhou leaders after taking over from the Shang Dynasty to justify their conquest. It stated that a ruler has the Mandate of Heaven. However, a bad ruler can lose the Mandate of Heaven and therefore lose the power to rule. If so, it would be passed to a new family. The Mandate of Heaven became a central part of the Chinese government. Floods, riots, etc. would be signs of the ancestors' displeasure with the ruler. It was the explanation for rebellion and civil war.
Strong dynasty establishes peace and prosperity; It's considered to have the Mandate of Heaven --> In time, the dynasty declines and becomes corrupt; taxes raised; power grows weaker --> Disasters such as floods, famines, revolts, and invasions occur --> Old dynasty seen as having lost the Mandate of Heaven; rebellion justified --> Dynasty is overthrown through rebellion and bloodshed; new dynasty --> New dynasty gains power, restores peace and order, claims to have the Mandate of Heave -->...
A system of government in which, in order to govern such a large area, the ruler (dynasty) gives control over different regions to members of the royal family or trusted nobles. They are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king and in return they owe loyalty and military service to the king and protection too the people who live on their estates.
A name for China because the Chinese believed that China was the center of the civilized world.
When the Huang He floods destroyed whole villages, it earned the nickname "China's sorrow".
Period of Warring States
The later years of the Zhou dynasty. The lords became too powerful and in 771, when Nomads killed the Zhou monarch, the royal family had little power.
The soul in Hindu beliefs.
Purpose to fulfill your dharma (purpose in life).
Putting energies out into the universe. If you do bad, bad happens/ if you do good, good happens. It follows the soul from one reincarnation to another.
Achieved the ultimate dharma - released from the cycle of reincarnation.
Rebirth of individual's soul/spirit reborn until it achieves Moksha - after death it comes back.
The devine cow herder (form of Vishnu).
The perfect king (form of Vishnu).
Founded by Mahavira. He believed that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore shouldn't be harmed.
Teachers' comments about the hidden meanings of the Vedic hymns.
Hindu view of religion
Hindus share a worldview. They see religion as a way of liberating the soul from the illusions, disappointments, and mistakes of everyday existence.
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