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Endocrine System review, hormone quiz
Terms in this set (68)
The endocrine system is a major controlling system in the body. Its means of control, however, is much _____ than that of the ____, the other major body system that acts to maintain homeostasis.
slower and more prolonged; nervous system
Perhaps the reason for this is that the endocrine system uses chemical messengers, called ____, instead of ____.
hormones; nerve impulses
These chemical messengers enter the blood and are carried throughout the body by the activity of the ____.
All cells do not respond to endocrine system stimulation. Only those that have the proper ____ on their cell membranes are activated by the chemical messengers.
These responsive cells are called the ____ of the various endocrine glands.
Hormones promote homeostasis by ____ of the body cells rather than by ____.
altering activity; stimulating new or unusual activity
Most hormones are ____ molecules.
steroid or amino acid-based
The various endocrine glands are prodded to release their hormones by nerve fibers (a ____ stimulus), by other hormones (a ____ stimulus) or by the presence of increased or decreased levels of various substances in the blood (a ____ stimulus).
neural; hormonal; humoral
The secretion of most hormones is regulated by a ____ system, in which increasing levels of that particular hormone "turn off" its stimulus.
The ____ is called the master endocrine gland because it regulates so many other endocrine organs.
However, it is in turn controlled by the ____ secreted by the ____ .
releasing hormones; hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is also part of the brain, so it is appropriately called a ____ organ.
1) Bind to a receptor in the cell's nucleus
2) Are lipid soluble
3) Activate genes to transcribe messenger RNA
Amino acid-based hormones:
1) Bind to a plasma membrane receptor
2) Act through a second messenger such as cyclic AMP
Bones and muscles are influenced by:
Mammary glands are influenced by:
The testes and ovaries are influenced by:
FSH and LIT
The thyroid is influenced by:
The adrenal cortex is influenced by:
Small glands that ride "horseback" on the thyroid:
Endocrine-producing organ present only in pregnant women:
Basal metabolic hormone
Programs T lymphocytes
Most important hormone regulating the amount of calcium circulating in the blood; released when blood calcium levels drop
PTH- parathyroid hormone
Helps to protect the body during long-term stressful situations such as extended illness and surgery
Short-term stress hormone; aids in the fight or flight response; increases the blood pressure and heart rate, for example
Necessary if glucose is to be taken up by body cells
Four tropic hormones:
Acts antagonistically to insulin; produced by the same endocrine organ
Hypothalamic hormone important in regulating water balance
Anterior pituitary hormones that regulate the ovarian cycle
Directly regulate the menstrual uterine cycle
Adrenal cortex hormone involved in regulating salt levels of body fluids
Necessary for milk production and ejection
Inadequate amounts of ____ cause sexual immaturity
Inadequate amounts of ____ causes tetany
Inadequate amounts of ____ cause excessive urination w/o high glucose levels, causes dehydration and tremendous thrist
Inadequate amounts of ____ causes goiters
Inadequate amounts of ____ causes cretinism; a type of dwarfism in which the individual retains child-like proportions and is mentally retarded
Inadequate amounts of ____ causes excessive thirst, high blood glucose levels, acidosis
Inadequate amounts of ____ causes abnormally small stature, normal proportions
Inadequate amounts of ____ cause miscarriage
Inadequate amounts of ____ results in lethargy, hair loss, low basal metabolic rate, obesity (myxedema in the adult)
Lantern jaw; large hands and feet (acromegaly in adults)
Bulging eyeballs, nervousness, increased pulse rate, weight loss (Grave's disease)
Demineralization of bones; spontaneous fractures
Cushing's syndrome- moon face, depression of the immune system
Abnormally large stature, relatively normal body proportions
Abnormal hairiness; masculination
Under ordinary conditions, the endocrine organs operate smooth until old age. However, a ____ in an endocrine organ may lead to ____ of its hormones
A lack of ____ in the diet may result in under-secretion of thyroxine.
Later in life, a woman experiences a number of symptoms such as hot flashes and mood changes, which result from decreasing levels of ____ in her system.
This period of a woman's life is referred to as ____, and it results in a loss of her ability to ____.
Menopause; bear children
Because ____ tolerance tends to decrease in an aging person, adult onset diabetes is common
Pete is very short for his chronological age of 8. What physical features will allow you to determine quickly whether to check GH or thyroxine levels?
If his proportions are normal- check GH
If not- check thyroxine
A young girl is brought into the clinic by her father. The girl fatigues easily and seems mentally sluggish. You notice a slight swelling in the anterior neck. What condition do you suspect? What are some possible causes and treatments?
causes-iodine deficiency and thyroid cell burnout
treatments- iodine supplements and thyroid hormone supplements
A 2-year old boy is brought to the clinic by his anguished parents. He is developing sexually and shows and excessive craving for salt. Blood test reveal hyperglycemia. What endocrine gland is hypersecreting?
Identify the endocrine disorder in each case and explain how the disorder produced the characteristic features of these four people: Fat man, Dwarf, Giant, and Breaded Lady.
Fat man: T3 and T4 hyposecretion- low metabolism
Dwarf: GH hyposecretion during childhood
Giant: GH hypersecretion during adulthood
Bearded Lady: hypersecretion by adrenal cortex
Which two hormones are released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland?
ADH and oxytocin
Hormones released by nerve cells of the _______ regulate hormones secreted by the ____________.
hypothalamus, anterior pituitary
What is the function of insulin?
Which of these hormones is secreted in the liver?
What is the name of the stalk that connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary?
What is the ultimate purpose of hormones?
A) to maintain growth B) to keep the brain functioning C) to stimulate metabolism D) none of the above
Which statement is false?
A) the endocrine system is composed of ductless glands
B) contents of the endocrine system are released into the bloodstream
C) the mammory gland is part of the endocrine system
D) exocrine glands are not part of the endocrine system
What is another name for thyroxine?
What is the target of ACTH?
also called epinephrine
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