A system of power based on wealth, income, and status that creates an unequal distribution of a society's resources.
what is an egalitarian society?
A group based on the sharing of resources to ensure success with a relative absence of hierarchy and violence.
What is reciprocity?
The exchange of resources, goods, and services among people of relatively equal status; meant to create and rein-force social ties.
What is a ranked society?
A group in which wealth is not stratified but prestige and status are.
What is modernization?
a theory that predicts that former colonies would progress along the same lines as the industrialied nations
What is redistribution?
A form of exchange in which accumulated wealth is collected from the members of the group and reallocated in a different pattern.
What is potlatch?
Elaborate redistribution ceremony practiced among the Kwakiutl of the Pacific Northwest.
What is dependency theory?
A critique that arugued that despite the end of colonialism, the underlying economic relations in the global economy had not changed
What is bourgeoisie?
Marxist term for the capitalist class that owns the means of production.
What are means of production?
The factories, machines, tools, raw materials, land, and financial capital needed to make things.
What is a proletariat?
Marxist term for the class of laborers who own only their labor.
What is prestige?
The reputation, influence, and deference bestowed on certain people because of their membership in certain groups.
What is social mobility?
The movement of one's class position, upward or downward, in stratified societies.
What is social reproduction?
The phenomenon whereby social and class relations of prestige or lack of prestige are passed from one generation to the next.
What is habitus?
Bourdieu's term to describe the self- perceptions and beliefs that develop as part of one's social identity and shape one's conceptions of the world and where one fits in it.
What is cultural capital?
The knowledge, habits, and tastes learned from par-ents and family that individuals can use to gain access to scarce and valuable resources in society.
What is intersectionality?
An analytic frame-work for assessing how factors such as race, gender, and class interact to shape individual life chances and societal patterns of stratification.
What is income?
What people earn from work, plus dividends and interest on investments, along with rents and royalties.
What is wealth?
The total value of what some-one owns, minus any debt.
What is caste?
A closed system of stratifica-tion in a society.
What is acheived status?
Social position established and changeable during a person's lifetime.
What is ascribed status?
Social posi-tion inherited, assigned at birth, and passed down from genera-tion to generation with enforced boundaries.
What are dalits?
Members of India's " lowest" caste; literally, " broken people." Also called " Untouchables."
What is economy?
A cultural adaptation to the environment that enables a group of humans to use the available resources to satisfy their needs and to thrive.
What are food foragers?
Humans who subsist by hunting, fishing, and gathering plants to eat.
What is pastoralism?
A strategy for food production involving the domestication of animals.
What is horticulture?
The cultivation of plants for subsistence through non-intensive use of land and labor.
What is slash and burn agriculture?
A practice of clearing land for cultivation. Also called swidden farming.
What is agriculture?
An intensive farming strategy for food production involving permanently cultivated land.
What is industrialized agriculture?
Intensive farming practices involving mechanization and mass production.
What is the carrying capacity?
The number of people who can be supported by the resources of the surrounding region.
What are leveling mechanisms?
Practices and organizations that reallocate resources among a group to maxi-mize collective good.
What is colonialism?
The practice by which a nationstate extends political, economic, and military power beyond its own borders over an extended period of time to secure access to raw materials, cheap labor, and markets in other countries or regions.
What is the triangle trade?
The extensive exchange of slaves, sugar, cotton, and furs between Europe, Africa, and the Americas that transformed economic, political, and social life on both sides of the Atlantic.
What was the industrial revolution?
The eighteenth- and nineteenth- century shift from agriculture and artisanal skill craft to machine- based manufacturing.
What are modernization theories?
Post- World War II economic theories that pre-dicted that with the end of colonial-ism, less- developed countries would follow the same trajectory toward modernization as the industrialized countries.
What is neocolonialism?
A continued pattern of unequal economic relations despite the formal end of colonial political and military control.
What is underdevelopment?
The term used to suggest that poor countries are poor as a result of their relationship to an unbalanced global economic system.
What are core countries?
Industrialized former colonial states that dominate the world economic system.
What are periphery countries?
The least developed and least powerful nations; often exploited by the core countries as sources of raw materials, cheap labor, and markets.
What are semiperiphery countries?
Nations ranking in between core and periph-ery countries, with some attributes of the core countries but with less of a central role in the global economy.
What is Fordism?
The dominant model of industrial production for much of the twentieth century, based on a social compact between labor, capital, and government.
What is flexible accumulation?
The increasingly flexible strategies that corpo-rations use to accumulate profits in an era of globalization, enabled by innovative communication and transportation technologies.
What is a global city?
A former industrial center that has reinvented itself as a command center for global production.
What is neoliberalism?
An economic and political worldview that sees the free market as the main mecha-nism for ensuring economic growth, with a severely restricted role for government.
What is a commodity chain?
The hands an item passes through between pro-ducer and consumer.
What are pushes and pulls?
The forces that spur migration from the country of origin and draw immigrants to a particular new destination country.
What are bridges and barriers?
The factors that enable or inhibit migration.
What is Chain Migration?
The movement of people facilitated by the support of networks of family and friends who have already immigrated.
What is hometown association?
An organization created for mutual support by immigrants from the same home town or region.
What is remittance?
Resources transferred from migrants working abroad to individuals, families, and institutions in their country of origin.
What is cumulative causation?
An accumulation of factors that create a culture in which migration comes to be expected.
What is a labor immigrant?
A person who moves in search of a low- skill and low- wage job, often filling an economic niche that native- born workers will not fill.
What is a guest worker program?
A policy that allows labor immigrants to enter a country temporarily to work.
What is a professional immigrant?
A highly trained individual who moves to fill an economic niche in a middle- class profession often marked by shortages in the receiving country.
What is a brain drain?
Migration of highly skilled professionals from developing / periphery countries to developed / core countries.
What is social capital?
Assets and skills such as language, education, and social networks that can be mobilized in lieu of or as complementary to financial capital.
What is an entrepreneurial immigrant?
A person who moves to a new location to conduct trade and establish a business.
What is a refugee?
A person who has been forced to move beyond his or her national borders because of persecution, armed conflict, or natural disasters.
What is an internally displaced person?
A person who has been forced to move within his or her country of origin because of persecution, armed conflict, or natural disasters.
What is a 1.5 generation immigrant?
The child of immigrants who is born in the family's home country but at a young age moves with his or her parents to a new host country.
How much money is sent home due to remmittances in the world economy?
What is transnationalism?
The practice of maintaining active participation in social, economic, religious, and political spheres across national borders.
What is return migration?
immigrants who, having settled in a new receiving country, reverse course and return " home," sometimes in the same generation and sometimes in later generations.
What is a band?
A small kinship- based group of foragers who hunt and gather for a living over a particular territory.
What is a tribe?
a loosely organized group of people acting together, outside the authority of the state, under unelected leaders and " big men" / " strong men" and drawing on a sense of unity based on a notion of shared ethnicity.
Originally viewed as a culturally distinct, multiband population that imagined itself as one people descended from a common ances-tor; currently used to describe an indigenous group with its own set of loyalties and leaders living to some extent outside the control of a centralized authoritative state.
What is a chiefdom?
An autonomous political unit composed of a number of villages or communities under the permanent control of a paramount chief.
What is a state?
An autonomous regional structure of political, economic, and military rule with a central govern-ment authorized to make laws and use force to maintain order and defend its territory.
What is a civil society organization?
A local nongovernmental organization that challenges state policies and uneven development, and advocates for resources and opportunities for members of its local communities.
What is militarization?
The contested social process through which a civil society organizes for the production of military violence.
What is social movement?
Collective group actions in response to uneven devel-opment, inequality, and injustice that seek to build institutional net-works to transform cultural patterns and government policies.
What is the framing process?
The creation of shared meanings and definitions that motivate and justify collective action by social movements.
What is deterrence?
mutually assured destruction
What are the two types of preparation for war?
1. Material 2. ideology
What is religion?
A set of beliefs based on a unique vision of how the world ought to be, often revealed through insights into a supernatural power and lived out in community.
What is a martyr?
A person who sacrifices his or her life for the sake of religion.
What is a saint?
An individual who is considered exceptionally close to God and is exalted after death.
What is sacred?
Anything that is considered holy.
The creation of shared meanings and definitions that motivate and justify collective action by social movements.
What is profane?
Anything that is considered not holy.
What is a ritual?
An act or series of acts regularly repeated over years or generations that embody the beliefs of a group of people and create a sense of continuity and belonging.
What is a rite of passage?
A category of ritual that enacts a change of status from one life stage to another, either for an individual or a group.
What is liminality?
One stage in a rite of passage during which a ritual participant experiences a period of outsiderhood, set apart from normal society, that is key to achieving a new perspective on the past, future, and current community.
what is communitas?
A sense of camarade-rie, a common vision of what constitutes a good life, and a com-mitment to take social action to move toward achieving this vision that is shaped by the common expe-rience of rites of passage.
What is a pilgrimage?
A religious journey to a sacred place as a sign of devotion and in search of transformation and enlightenment.
what is cultural materialism?
A theory that argues that material conditions, including technology, determine patterns of social organization, including religious principles.
What is a shaman?
A parttime religious practitioner with special abilities to connect individuals with supernatural powers or beings.
What is magic?
The use of spells, incan-tations, words, and actions in an attempt to compel supernatural forces to act in certain ways, whether for good or for evil.
What is imitative magic?
A ritual performance that achieves efficacy by imitating the desired magical result.
What is contagious magic?
Ritual words or performances that achieve effi-cacy as certain materials that come into contact with one person carry a magical connection that allows power to be transferred from person to person.
What is an authorizing process?
The complex historical and social developments through which symbols are given power and meaning.
What is health?
The absence of disease and infirmity, as well as the pres-ence of physical, mental, and social well- being.
What is disease?
A discrete natural entity that can be clinically identified and treated by a health professional.
what is illness?
The individual patient's experience of sickness.
What is ethnomedicine?
Local systems of health and healing rooted in cultually specific norms and values.
What is ethnopharmacology?
The documentation and description of the local use of natural substances in healing remedies and practices.
What is biomedicine?
A practice, often associated with Western medicine, that seeks to apply the principles of biology and the natural sciences to the practice of diagnosing disease and promoting healing.
What is a human microbiome?
The complete collection of micoorganisms in the human body's ecosystem.
What is a health transistion?
The significant improvements in human health made over the course of the twenti-eth century that were not, however, distributed evenly across the world's population.
What is critical medical anthropology?
An approach to the study of health and illness that analyzes the impact of inequality and stratification within systems of power on individual and group health outcomes.
What is medical migration?
The movement of diseases, medical treatments, and entire healthcare systems, as well as those seeking medical care, across national borders.
What is medical pluralism?
The intersection of multiple cultural approaches to healing.
what are illness narratives?
The personal stories that people tell to explain their illnesses.
What is art?
All ideas, forms, techniques, and strategies that humans employ to express themselves creatively and to communicate their creativity and inspiration to others.
What is fine art?
Creative expression and communication often associated with cultural elites.
What is popular art?
Creative expression and communication often associated with the general population.
What is aesthetic experience?
Perception through one's senses.
What is the universal gaze?
An intrinsic way of perceiving art thought by many in the Western art world to be found across cultures that informs what people consider to be art or not art.
What is authenticity?
The perception of an object's antiquity, uniqueness, and originality within a local culture.
What is ethnomusicology?
The study of music in cultural context.
What is kinetic orality?
A musical genre combining body movement and voice.
What is the global mediascape?
Global cultural flows of media and visual images that enable linkages and commu-nication across boundaries in ways unimaginable a century ago.
What is visual anthropology?
A field of anthropology that explores the pro-duction, circulation, and consump-tion of visual images, focusing on the power of visual representation to influence culture and cultural identity.
What is a photographic gaze?
The presumed neutral viewpoint of the camera that in fact projects the perspective of the person behind the camera onto human nature, the natural world, and history.
what is social media?
New forms of communication based on computer- and Internet based technologies that facilitate social engagement, work, and pleasure.
What is an avatar?
An object, real or virtual, that graphically represents a participant in a game or other activity.
Who is Leith Mullings?
- anthropologist -transformative works! (helping with day-to-day struggles) - Harlem project, african american women resisting inequality - intersectionality (analyzes the intersection of race, class, and gender)
Who is Emilio F. Moran?
-environmental anthropologist -studies the human dimensions of climate change
Who is Ana Aparicio?
-anthropologist -studied 1st and 2nd generation Domincan Americans to see the affects of globalization on young people -studied youth politics
Who is Melissa Checker?
-anthropologist -studies and participates in movement for social justice
Who is Robin Root?
-medical anthropologist -began her career on HIV risk females electronic factory workers in Malaysia -worked in Swaziland
Who is Paul Farmer?
-medical anthropologist -examines connections between poverty and disease -studies unequal distribution of medical technologies around the globe -worked extensively in haiti
Who is Aimee Cox?
-african american -former dancer -anthropologist -studies performance (dance, theatre etc.)
What is the reasoning behind structural adjustment policies?
Pros: -unleash competition to maximize profits -elliminates trade barriers to enhance ability to compete in the global economy
cons: -weathy countries remain wealthy -poor countries remain poor
Use two examples from Jamaica to discuss problems with structural adjustment?
Brittish withdrew from Jamaica, Jamaica took out loans to help stabalize long term economic development BUT the benefits didn't materialize and the country fell into dept
What are the affects of miltarization on society?
our definietion of reality will allign with the realities of war, so our perspective will shift.
What tools should anthropologist use to understand how religion works?
Carl Marx: religion is the opiate of the masses dulls the pain of life institutions of culture arise and are shaped by the economic climate
Why are cows sacred in India?
-because cows are symbolic representations of nonviolence -became a symbol of health and abundance because of that -the cows can provide so much more for a household when alive so they built it into the culture so that the poor wouldn't feel pressured to kill their cows
What did Kiara Bridges learn and question about black women and babies in New york?
-black women are assumed to be able to endure more pain and be hardier but black women and babies die way more often than white women do -black women recieve poorer quality care -more white staff members than black
what does the writing on african/european era cave walls depict about the past?
shows animals and human figurines served as a kind of art studio to prepare camoflauge and other art for clothing and bodies suggests rudimentary knowlege of chemistry and complex social practices