APUSH: Chapter 8-Jeffersonianism and the Era of Good Feeling, 1801-1824
Terms in this set (43)
family farmers who hired out slaves for the harvest season, self-sufficient, participated in local markets alongside slave owners
Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations
Judiciary Act of 1801
A law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with Federalists, Law passed by the expiring Federalist Congress; created 16 new federal judgeships, were filled by Adams' "midnight Judges."
Marbury v. Madison
(1803) Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. This formally established judicial review, giving Supreme Court the power to rule a law unconstitutional.
American jurist and politician who served as the chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1801-1835) and helped establish the practice of judicial review. Made many key rulings that ultimately strengthen the power of the Federal Court.
Authority given to the courts to review constitutionality of acts by the executive/state/legislature; est. in Marbury v. Madison
Louisiana Purchase, 1803
Approved by Thomas Jefferson, the purchasing of Louisiana Territory from Napoleon (busy with the war with Britain) that expanded the United States significantly for the price of 15 million dollars.
Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804-1806 - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were commissioned by Jefferson to map and explore the Louisiana Purchase region. Beginning at St. Louis, Missouri, the expedition travelled up the Missouri River to the Great Divide, and then down the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries, greatly facilitating later settlement of the region and travel to the Pacific coast.
Native American woman who assisted Lewis and Clark. Taught them vital skills to survive out west and also served as translator.
Aaron Burr and conspiracy
New York lawyer and vice-presidential candidate in 1796; he became Jefferson's vice president in 1801 after the House of Representatives broke a deadlock in the Electoral College. Would later want to become president himself. When Alexander Hamilton exposed Aaron Burr's plot to separate the New England states from the Union, Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and killed him. Burr fled to the West so he could be among people who hated Hamilton. In 1805, Aaron Burr proposed to separate the western states from the Union and form a new republic under English protection, but England refused to listen to his plan. Wilkinson informed Jefferson of Burr's plans for treason and had Burr arrested. Would get tried for treason but never convicted.
Criticized the president for compromising Republican ideology. John Randolph, the leader, refused to accept the idea that a political party on taking power might have to view things differently than when it was in opposition to the party in office. Quids were very conservative in their beliefs and wanted the government to be precisely the same as it was dreamed up of during the establishment of the Constitution.
Leader of the new political party, the "Old Republicans" (Quids). Quids were against the War of 1812 because it violated democratic policies. Showed division of Republicans.
British seamen often deserted to join the American merchant marines. The British would board American vessels in order to retrieve the deserters, and often seized any sailor who could not prove that he was an American citizen and not British.
1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology. They surrendered the colony to the English on Sept. 8, 1664.
Embargo Act of 1807
An act by Congress to avoid war. It was a very controvercial act that prohibited American ships from leaving for foreign ports. It created a depression, affecting mostly federalist merchants and shipowners in the Northeast. Initially proposed by Jefferson but Madison would replace it.
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
Macon's Bill No. 2
1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand. Consisted of famous politicians including John Calhoun, Richard M. Johnson, and William King.
John C. Calhoun
7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century; was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification. Though initially he supported tariffs, Calhoun would later go against it to appease his South Carolinian population.
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of the House of Representatives, and known as "The Great Compromiser." Also famous for his American System plan that he propposed.
An economic regime pioneered by Henry Clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. This approach was intended to allow the United States to grow and prosper by themselves This would eventually help America industrialize and become an economic power.
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
William Henry Harrison
(1841), was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe (Americans v. Shawnee Indians. led by governor Harrison, the Americans defeated the Shawnee's and Tecumseh in the Indiana Territory.)
War of 1812
(JM), 1812-1815, Resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army (Leopard on Chesapeake) (1812 - 1815), Embargo Act
Election of 1812
Madison still prevailed, even though the country was divided over the issue of war (many Northern states opposed war).
Burning of Washington
Took place on August 24, 1814, during the War of 1812 between the British Empire and the United States of America. British forces occupied Washington, D.C. and set fire to many public buildings following the American defeat at the Battle of Bladensburg
Francis Scott Key
A washington lawyer who watched the all-night battle at Fort McHenry and showed his pride by writing what became the national anthem. Was forced to be a "hostage" and watch the battle. Inspired him to write the Star spangled banner.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Battle of New Orleans
A battle during the War of 1812 where the British army attempted to take New Orleans. Due to the foolish frontal attack, Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost.
1828 and 1832; Democrat; nicknamed "Old Hickory," notable events include the so-called "bank war" caused by his absolute opposition to the 2nd Bank of the United States, the Nullification Crisis caused by the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, his policy of Inidan removal, and the first attempt to assasinate a president
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence especially after the Battle of New Orleans and the "victory" of War of 1812.
(1817-1821) and (1821-1825) The Missouri Compromise in 1821., the fifth President of the United States (1817-1825).His administration was marked by the acquisition of Florida (1819); the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state; and the profession of the Monroe Doctrine (1823), declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas
The "Era of Good Feelings"
"For a brief period after War 1812, commentators had celebrated an "ear of good feelings" in which it appeared that party differences had dissolved...But the upheavals of the panic of 1819 and the growth of white men's political participation helped to obstruct Clay's ambitions and sow the seeds of new party divisions.'
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
(1819) U.S. Supreme Court upheld the original charter of the college against New Hampshire's attempt to alter the board of trustees; set precedent of support of original contracts against state interference.
McCullough v. Maryland
1819 ruling by the Supreme Court stating that Maryland could not tax the local office of the Bank of the United States because it was the property of the National Gov't. John Marshall used the "necessary and proper" clause to grant Federal government the power. Established the idea of implied powers.
Tariff of 1816
1st protective tariff; helped protect American industry from competition by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Panic of 1819
1st major financial panic since the Constitution was ratified; marked the end of economic expansion and featured deflation (value of US money going down), depression, bank failures, foreclosures on western farms, unemployment, a slump in agriculture and manufacturing, and overcrowded debtor's prisons. Also risky lending practices of the state and local banks led to overspeculation on lands in west- the national bank tightened its credit lending policies and eventually forced these state and local banks to foreclose mortgages on farms, which resulted in bankruptcies and prisons full of debtors.
The Missouri Compromise
1820 agreement calling for the admission of Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state and outlawing slavery in future states to be created north of the 36, 30 parallel
John Quincy Adams
(1767-1848) Son of President John Adams and the secretary of state to James Monroe, he largely formulated the Monroe Doctrine. He was the sixth president of the United States and later became a representative in Congress.
1817 - This treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain (which controlled Canada) provided for the mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes. This was later expanded into an unarmed Canada/U.S. border.
(1819) Spain ceded Florida to the United States and gave up its claims to the Oregon Territory
The Monroe Doctrine
A key foreign policy made by President Monroe in 1823. It declared the western hemisphere off limits to new European colonization and in return, the US promised not to meddle in European affairs.
Second Bank of United States
Chartered in 1816, much like its predecessor of 1791 but with more capital; it could not forbid state banks from issuing notes, but its size and power enabled it to compel the state banks to issue only sound notes or risk being forced out of business.