APUSH: Chapter 9-The Transformation of American Society
Terms in this set (23)
Alexis de Tocqueville
He wrote a two-volume Democracy in America that contained insights and pinpointed the general equality among people. He wrote that inequalities were less visible in America than France.
Democracy in America
Classic French text by Alexis de Tocqueville on the United States in the 1830s and its strengths and weaknesses such as the tyranny of the majority It explained why republicanism succeeded in the U.S. and failed elsewhere.
First national road building project funded by Congress. It made travel and transportation of goods much easier because it was one continuous road that was in good condition.
Five Civilized Tribes
Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion
Tribe living in southeast U.S., tried to assimilate into Christianity, written language, representative government; forced to move west in a journey called the Trail of Tears
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
(1831) The Cherokees argued that they were a seperate nation and therefore not under Georgia's jurisdiction. Marshall said they were not, but rather had "special status"
Trial of Tears
1838-1840, The marches in which the Cherokee people were forcibly removed from Georgia to the Indian Territory with thousands of Cherokee's dying on the way
Black Hawk War
Chief Black Hawk of Sauk tribe, led rebellion against US; started in Illinois and spread to Wisconsin Territory; 200 Sauk and Fox ppl murdered; tribes removed to areas west of Mississippi
Eli Whitney's cotton gin
Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States. Prior to his invention, farming cotton required hundreds of man-hours to separate the cottonseed from the raw cotton fibers. Simple seed-removing devices have been around for centuries, however, Eli Whitney's invention automated the seed separation process. Making cotton production profitable for southern states.
An economy that allocates resources through the decentralized decisions of many firms and households as they interact in markets for goods and services
western land speculation
Banks often founded so they could lend their directors money for personal investment in land speculation; encouraged sale of huge tracts of land to wealthy speculators who had no intention of farming land themselves; speculators held onto land until value rose then sold off parcels to farmers
Panic of 1819
1st major financial panic since the Constitution was ratified; marked the end of economic expansion and featured deflation (value of US money going down), depression, bank failures, foreclosures on western farms, unemployment, a slump in agriculture and manufacturing, and overcrowded debtor's prisons. Also risky lending practices of the state and local banks led to overspeculation on lands in west- the national bank tightened its credit lending policies and eventually forced these state and local banks to foreclose mortgages on farms, which resulted in bankruptcies and prisons full of debtors.
1765-1815) American engineer and inventor, he built the first commercially successful full-sized steamboat, the Clermont, which lead to the development of commercial steamboat ferry services for goods and people
Gibbons v. Ogden
(JMon) interstate commerce, In this Marshall Court case, the U.S. Supreme Court invalidated a state monopoly and reaffirmed Congress' power to oversee commerce between states. Of all the cases that have interpreted the scope of congressional power under the commerce clause, none has been more important than this "steamboat case." The case established a basic precedent because it paved the way for later federal regulation of transportation, communication, buying and selling, and manufacturing. Today, little economic activity remains outside the regulatory power of Congress.
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
Roads, Steam boats, Canal, Railroads
By 1850s, railroad transportation was fairly cheap and widespread. It allowed goods to be moved in large quantities over long distances, and it reduced travel time.
"Father of the Factory System" in America; escaped Britain with the memorized plans for the textile machinery; put into operation the first spinning cotton thread in 1791.
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
Eli Whitney's interchangeable part
Cut production costs by using unskilled workers to make interchangeable parts that could be used in any of his factory's muskets; idea worked but implementation slow
Women who wanted a restricted virgin life, where they would get paid became Lowell's . Lowell wanted girls to work in his factory because they had small hands and were cheaper to pay
African-American preacher who helped start the Free African Society.
Nineteenth-century idea in Western societies that men and women, especially of the middle class, should have different roles in society: women as wives, mothers, and homemakers; men as breadwinners and participants in business and politics.
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption.