139 terms

2nd Semester History Exam

The Quizlet of Greatness
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Mecca
A late-blooming caravan city that houses the Ka'ba.
Ka'ba
Cubed Islamic temple in Mecca, believed to be built by Abraham.
Muhammad
(570-632)Arab prophet who founded Islam, aka the "seal of the prophets".
Islam
The religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life; means "submission" in English.
Muslim
A follower of Islam; means "one who submits" in English.
Sharia
The Muslim code of law derived from the Qur'an and from the teachings and example of Muhammad.
Caliph
Political figures that were Muhammad's successors.
Tahwid
The oneness, uniqueness, and unity of Allah.
Umma
The Muslim community.
Ulema
Muslim scholars.
Quraysh
The dominant tribe in Mecca, which Muhammad was born into.
Umayyad
The more powerful side of the Quraysh family.
Hashemite
The weaker side of the Quraysh family, that Muhammad was from.
Five Pillars of Islam
The five duties of a Muslim (Allah is God and Muhammad is his prophet, pray five times daily, fast during Ramadan, almsgiving, make a pilgrimage to Mecca).
Sunni
The largest Islamic sect, known as the people of tradition and union; say that a caliph should be chosen by the entire community.
Shi'a (Shi'ite)
The second largest branch of Islam; support Ali and wanted descendents of Muhammad to rule.
Hijira
The journey that Muhammad and his followers, took from Mecca to Medina after being faced with the threat of murder. It marks the begininning of the Muslim calender
Abu Sufyan
Leading man of Quraysh of Mecca and staunch opponent of Muhammad. Later adopted Islam and became on e of Muhammad's companions.
Usury
Lending money at an exorbitant rate of interest.
Medina
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca.
Rightly Guided Period (Caliphate)
632-644, period of caliphs who were all close friends of Muhammad and did their job right.
Umayyad Caliphate
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs (661 to 750). Capital in Damascus, empire from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate.
Abbasid Caliphate
Descendants of Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad from 750 to 1258.
Abu Bakr
One of Muhammad's earliest converts; was the first caliph, didn't do much.
Umar
2nd caliph, spread Islam, left Christians and Jews alone if they paid Jizia tax.
Jizia Tax
Tax that non Muslims paid to the Islamic government. Many would convert to Muslim so they wouldn't have to pay the taxes, causing the profits off the non Muslims to decrease.
Delhi
Kingdom established in India by Turkish Muslim invaders, first brutal conquest.
Diwan
Group of scholars paid by Umar to think and study things.
Qur'an
The holy book of Islam.
Ali
Muhammad's son-in-law; a leading figure in the Shi'a branch of Islam .
Kharijites
This group rejected the caliphs, they believed only a Muslim free of sin could lead; revolted against Ali.
Imam
Muslim prayer leader.
Muawiya
Governor of syria appointed by Uthman, who opposed ali's rule; during Umayyad Caliphate.
Yazid/Husayn
Muawia's son & successor,___, supposedly stole caliphate from
Muhammad's grandson, _____
Ashura
Shia commoration of the death of Husayn.
Theraveda Buddhism
Original form of Buddhism, no gods or statues, less popular.
Mahayana Buddhism
More popular form of Buddhism with deities, statues, and
bodhisattvas.
Xian Bei
Nomads who took over China (N. Wei) and adopted their ways and culture and brought them Mahayana Buddhism.
Nestorianism
Sect of Christians that believed Jesus was human but possessed by god when he performed miracles; spread along Silk Road.
Zoroastrianism
Persian religion, battle between good and evil (heaven and hell), influenced Judaism and Christianity.
Manichaeism
A mix of several religions but derived from Zoroastrianism; spread along the Silk Road.
Ibn Battuta
Muslim scholar and traveler, who traveled through the Islamic world from 1330- 1350's keeping accounts of the places he visited.
Marco Polo
Venetian merchant who traveled from Venice to China; supposedly Kublai Khan's ambassador.
Xuan Zang
Went to India to find original meanings of Buddhism, came back with tons of Mahayana Buddhist scriptures.
Dumb Show
Trade through silent negotiation.
Entrepot
Tax free trade cities.
Indian Ocean Maritime System
Network of seaports, trade routes, and maritime culture linking countries on rim of Indian Ocean.
Swahili Coast
E. coast of Africa, involved in Indian Ocean Maritime System.
Malthusian Trap
Cycle of population/economy growth, they both keep each other in check.
Stirrups
One of the most important inventions, changed horseback riding forever.
Dhow
The cargo and passenger ship of the W. Indian Ocean.
Junk
Technologically advanced Chinese ships.
Parthians
Iranian ruling dynasty between 250 BC and 226 AD.
Sasanids
Defeated the Parthians (led by Ardashir), were silk road middlemen.
Mamluks
Slave soldiers who converted to Islam, eventually became a powerful military caste and even governed Egypt from 1250 to 1517.
Mali
Muslim kingdom founded in W. Africa by Sundiata, most famous ruler was Mansa Musa.
Mansa Musa
Famous Mali ruler, made pilgramage to Mecca, extremely rich.
Ghana
Kingdom whose salt & gold trade on camels brought Islam to W. Africa.
Northern Wei Dynasty
439-534, ruled by the Xian Bei; buddhist.
Xiao Wen
Most important ruler of the N. Wei, tried to be as Chinese as possible.
Sui Dynasty
589-618 founded by Sui Wendi; first dynasty to unify China after North/ South split; Xian Bei descent; built grand canal.
Sui Wendi (Yang Jian)
Founded Sui Dynasty, leveled Chang'an because of ghosts, re-introduced corvee system; legalist.
Yangdi
Sui Wendi's son & successor; expanded great wall.
Tang Dynasty
Overthrew the Sui because Li Shimin tricked his father into it; confucian.
Li Shimin (Tang Taizong)
Forced his father to start the Tang Dynasty then became ruler after his death. Expanded Tang W. & N. to control trade routes.
Xuan Zong
Lazy Emperor whose rule (712-56) was the start of the Tang's downfall; part of a love triangle w/ Yang Guifei and general An Lushan; didn't care about the Turkish invasions.
Su Zong
Tang Emperor, lost Turkish enterance to silk road; had to pay tribute to the Uighurs.
An Lushan
Turkic general who stole Emperor Xuan Zong's girlfriend and revolted against him for the good of the Empire.
Zhou Dynasty
Temporary "interruption" to the Tang Dynasty in 690-705, led by Empress Wu Zeitan.
Empress Wu
Originally Li Shimin's concubine, ruled through her sons untill she created the Zhou Dynasty. Promoted Buddhism and woman's rights, later used as a scapegoat.
Song Dynasty
Founded by Zhao Kuanying, wanted to avoid mistakes of the Tang, neo Confucianism and Chan Buddhism less woman's rights, lasted 960-1279.
Zhao Kuanying
Founded Song Dynasty, reduced power of military.
Wang Anshi
Advisor to Zhao Kuanying, made Song a welfare and loan state with minimum wage, ect.
Huizong
Stupid Song Emperor who helped Jurchens fight the Liao, who later took most of his N. land.
Yuan Dynasty
Mongol dynasty (1280-1386), founded by Kublai Khan, capital in Dadu.
Kublai Khan
Founded Yuan Dynasty, wanted to be like a Chinese Emperor but ended up discriminating against the Chinese; got rid of confucianism and corruption in gov't.
Battle of Talas
Battle where Tang Dynasty runs into the Arabs when expanding westward creating a fight for the land. The Arabs win and the Chinese slowly slowly start to loose western territory.
FuBing System
Frontier land given to Tang peasants if they formed a militia out there and kept down revolts; ended up revolting a lot themselves.
Tangguts
Name of the nation established in West China post Tang.
Jurchens
Group that, with the help of the Song, destroyed Liao capitol in mongolia and started the Jin Empire
Uighurs
Nomadic Turkish people who were hired by the Tang to defeat the rebellion of An Lushan, later sacked Chang'an and Luoyang.
Koryo
Ruling house in Korea united the Koguryo and Silla kingdoms.
Bushido
Term used to describe the Honor, Nobility, Loyalty, Humility etc. of the Japanese Samurai.
Kamikaze
Divine wind, or hurricane; reason why Mongols couldn't take over Japan because it sunk all their ships.
Genghis Khan
Supreme Leader, 1206, started Mongol
Empire
Tributary System
Other countries have to acknowledge Tang's supremacy and send them $ if they wanted in on their trade system.
Lombards
Nomadic group who controlled much of Italy.
Arianism
Belief among Germanic nomads that Jesus was made by god and thus inferior, went against the trinity. A heresy (goes against church teachings)
Donatism
Belief that personal character of the preist that performs the sacraments matters. A heresy.
Nicene Creed
Major Christian document created by Constantine, proof that you're Christian.
Schism
Break between the orthodox and latin churches.
Feudalism
System of personal loyalties that made medieval politics complicated and drawn out; emerged in 700s/800s.
Manor
A self sufficient farming estate that became the primary centers of agriculture; serfs worked for the nobles and cultivated the land.
Liege Lord
Person who you directly are indebted to.
Fiefs
Plots of land given out by leige lords to vassals; they can always be regiven/split.
Clovis
Converted all the Franks to Christianity and started the Frank Empire.
Salic Law
Laws issued by Clovis including laws pertaining to partible inheritance and serfdom.
Partiable Inheritance
Inheritance split equally amongst sons.
Primogeniture
Oldest son inherits everything.
Scutage
Paying money instead of fighting.
Trial by Ordeal
Barbaric method created by clovis that tested a person's innocence e.g. throwing them into a river and seeing whether they sink or float.
Donation of Constantine
Fake Roman imperial edict, supposedly written by Constantine. Pope and Church were given much power, Constantinople, and Papal states.
Vikings
Settled Normandy, attacked Europe, Eric the Red colonized Greenland and Leif Eriksson reached Newfoundland.
Major Domo
Advisor to Frankish King; ended up doing most of the ruling.
Battle of Tours
The battle in where Franks led by Charles Martel beat the Muslims; saved Christianity but prolonged the European Dark Ages.
Millenialism
Much religious enthusiasm based on the beliefe that the world was about to end with return of Christ.
Augustine of Hippo
Important philosopher who believed in rational thinking and logic. Thought that the reason God didn't make people faithful to him always is because faith is not faith unless it is chosen. Explained original sin, ascetism, and free will.
Justinian
Tried to recreate Rome, fought the Persians (Khosrow), & put together a basic code of laws still used today.
Charles Martel
AKA the bastard/hammer; Frankish commander/major domo who won the Battle of Tours, saving Christianity.
Constantine Copronymus
Believed God was upset by the images of Jesus and became iconoclast and smashed all depictions of Christ, part of reason for schism.
Pepin the Short
Son of Charles Martel who becomes major domo but decides he should be king and gets the thumbs up from the pope as long as he gives him protection & papal states.
Pope Stephen II
Helped Pepin the Short become King by forging the Donation of Constantine in the 750's.
Charlemagne
King of Franks & emperor of Rome to 814. Established Carolingian Empire (Gauo-Italy/Germany). Illiterate, but started intellectual revival.
Pope Leo III
Pope who personally crowned Charlemagne in 800. Started the idea that the pope must approve of and crown the emperor.
Carolingian Renaissance
Period of cultural revival started by Charlemagne; failed b/c Franks valued war over learning.
Lothar and Charles
Sons of Louis the Pious who ended the Carolignian empire because of civil war over land.
Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII
Popes who tried to stop simony and started the investiture controversey.
Simony
The selling of church offices.
Investiture Contraversy
Argument over if there should be state appointed Church officials started by Popes Leo IX and Gregory VII, led to civil war against King Henry IV.
Bourgeosie
Prosperous middle classmen who didn't really fit into the feudal system.
Pope Urban II
Asked European Christians to fight the Muslims to defend their Byzantine brothers, at the Council of Clermont, starting the 1st Crusades.
Pope Euginus
Started 2nd Crusade when Edessa (not even holy land) was taken back by Muslims in 1144.
Richard the Lionheart
Epitome of chivalry, put together 3rd crusade with Philip Augustus to take Jerusalem back... again.
Chivalry
Complicated code of behaviour to make nobles look sophisticated and still better than everyone, though they were pointless; focused on romance/love.
Pope Innocent III
Tried to reestablish Church's power after faliure of 4th crusade, (made marriage a sacrament, enforced celibacy, no trial by ordeal, ect.)
Pope Boniface VIII
Killed the last pope (Celestine); became French King's puppet (late 1200s) after they beat him up & jailed him for saying that they'd go to hell for taxing the church.
William the Conqueror
The duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England, first Norman King of England.
Guild
Association of merchants that regulated the business of members, trained apprentices, reduced competition, ect.
Journeyman
Employee; step after apprentice but before master.
King John of England
1199-1216; bipolar, unstable ruler, people hated him so his nobles made him sign the Magna Carta.
Magna Carta
Great Charter, signed 1215. King no longer has ultimate power (constitutional monarchy), started right to property, parliament, habeas corpus, ect.
Medici and Fuggers Families
Influental Italian banking families.
Dominicans and Franciscans
2 new competing religious orders that gave professors to colleges after 1200.
Scholasticism
Theologists attempts to combine reason and faith.
Dante
Poet who wrote the Divine Comedy, foreshadows later rennisance literary patterns.
Humanists
Educators, advisors, and reformers influenced by Dante with interest in humanities, grammar, rhetorics, history, and ethics.
Peter Abelard
Castrated Monk who studied Aristotle; had nothing to lose so he questioned the trinity and used dialectic (thesis vs antithesis = synthesis) to compare religious works, wrote first autobiography.
3 Field System
Crops on 2/3 of the land and oats on 1/3.
Khurt Hai
Mongol family leaders get together and vote on important issues.