APUSH: Chapter 10-Democratic Politics, Religious Revival, and Reform, 1824-1840
Terms in this set (70)
Second Party System
The second party structure in the nation's history that emerged when Andrew Jackson first ran for the presidency in 1824. The system was built from the bottom up as political participation became a mass phenomenon.
A political party formed by supporters of Andrew Jackson after the presidential election of 1824.
A political leader who worked his way up to the top from the bottom. Andrew Jackson was the model common man. He had been orphaned, so he fought in the Revolutionary War at age thirteen. In the War of 1812, he became a hero and launched his political career soon after. He was like the rest of the country, and that's why they liked him so much. The common man began to take over during the Jacksonian Democracy.
White male suffrage
More white males could vote then ever before. Any white man could vote, even if he didn't own property, but women and African Americans couldn't vote
A major party in the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century, formally established in 1836. The Whig party was anti-Jackson and represented a variety of regional interests.
A northern American politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
The American System
An economic program promoted by Henry Clay; it included a strong banking system that could provide easy credit, protective tariff to allow eastern manufacturing to grow, and a network of federally financed canals and highways to knit the country together economically and politically.
John Quincy Adams
(1767-1848) Son of President John Adams and the secretary of state to James Monroe, he largely formulated the Monroe Doctrine. He was the sixth president of the United States and later became a representative in Congress.
(1829-1833) and (1833-1837), Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," first southern/ western president," President for the common man," pet banks, spoils system, specie circular, trail of tears, Henry Clay Flectural Process.
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."
An association or members of Congress based on party, interest, or social group such as gender or race.
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Martin van Buren
(1837-1841) Advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the south for the Democratic party. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt.
Election of 1828
The election of 1824 convinced Van Buren of the need for a renewed two-party competition. In the election of 1828, a new party formed & gradually became known as the Democratic Party which made Jackson president & Calhoun VP. Opponents called themselves the National Republicans.
Rotation in office. Jackson felt that one should spend a single term in office and return to private citizenship, those who held power too long would become corrupt and political appointments made by new officials was essential for democracy
Maysville Road Bill
Federal funding for a Kentucky road was vetoed by President Andrew Jackson in 1830. The bill would have authorized the government to buy stock in a road from Maysville to Lexington, which would make it completely in Kentucky. Jackson was completely against the federal government participating in internal improvements but he also called it unconstitutional because it could be viewed as a purely local undertaking.
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Jackson's plan to have eastern Indian tribes relocated to west of Mississippi supposedly for their own good to preserve them from assimilation or violence- passed by Congress and gave $500,000 to the project- would clear 100 million acres of lan
Tariff of Abominations, 1828
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional because it violated state's rights.
1832-33 was over the tariff policy of the Fed. Gov't, during Jackson's presidency which prompted South Carolina to threaten the use of NULLIFICATION, possible secession and Andrew Jackson's determination to end with military force.
John C. Calhoun
(1830s-40s) Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law, which forced the cooperation of Northern states in returning escaped slaves to the south. He also argued on the floor of the senate that slavery was needed in the south. He argued on the grounds that society is supposed to have an upper ruling class that enjoys the profit of a working lower class.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
A pamphlet published by the South Carolina legislature, written by John C. Calhoun. It spoke against the "Tariff of Abominations," and proposed nullification of the tariff. Calhoun wished to use nullification to prevent secession, yet address the grievances of sectionalist Southerners. These sectionalist ideas helped lead to the Civil War.
Peggy Eaton Affair
A social scandal where many wealthy cabinet member's wives snubbed the socially unacceptable Peggy Eaton, wife of John Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet - especially those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson.
The Force Bill
Authorized Jackson to use the army and navy, if necessary, to collect tariff duties.
The Great Compromiser
Nickname for Henry Clay based on his role in Congress finding ways to keep north & south from breaking apart
The Election of 1832
This was the first election to use party platforms, national nominating conventions and that had a significant third party, the Anti-Masons (Anti-Jacksons centered in New York). Jackson beat Henry Clay by a landslide due to his vetoing of the bank that made him very popular with the poor.
As President of the Second Bank of the United States, this man occupied a position of power and responsibility that propelled him to the forefront of Jacksonian politics in the 1830s. He, along with others who regarded the bank as a necessity, realized the threat posed by the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828. Jackson was bitterly opposed to the national bank, believing that it was an unconstitutional, elitist institution that bred inequalities among the people. A bitterly divisive issue, the rechartering of the bank dominated political discussion for most of the 1830s, and for many, this man became a symbol of all for which the bank stood. After Jackson's reelection, the Second Bank of the United States was doomed.
The Bank War
Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power, and was too rich. Whigs were scared he was going to destroy the Bank, so Clay and Webster decided to apply for renewal early, before the next election. Jackson vetoed the bill to renew the charter, but the people agreed with him
A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
Issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Panic of 1837
(MVB) , When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Independent Treasury Bill
The act removed the federal government from involvement with the nation's banking system by establishing federal depositories for public funds instead of keeping the money in national, state, or private banks. This was the system the government adopted until the federal reserve act of 1910.
Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign
Description of the election of 1840 in which the Whigs tried to promote Harrison's humble backgrounds through the image of log cabins. The election was entirely based on hoopla and not on any actual issues. Harrison (Tippecanoe) won but died soon after.
"Tippecanoe and Tyler too"
Came from the election of 1840. The Log Cabin Campaign used the slogan Tippecanoe and Tyler Too since their candidate was a war hero of the battle of Tippecanoe and the vice president candidate was John Tyler. This was important because it helped the Whigs win the election.
Second Great Awakening
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.
This is a term that refers to western New York. The term came at a time when revivals were rampant. Puritan sermonizers were preaching "hell-fire and damnation." Mormons. A religion, newly established by Joseph Smith, who claimed to have had a revelation from angel. The Mormons faced much persecution from the people and were eventually forced to move west. (Salt Lake City) After the difficult journey they greatly improved their land through wise forms of irrigation.
Charles G. Finney
Created the biggest religious revival at Rochester in 1830-1831 attended by all denominations. He was known for speeding conversions. He believed destinies were in people's hands unlike Calvinists.
He was an educated Reverend (president of Yale College) who helped initiate the Second Great Awakening. His campus revivals inspired many young men to become evangelical preachers.
Unitarians/William Ellery Channing
Dr. William Ellery Channing was the foremost Unitarian preacher in the United States in the early nineteenth century and, along with Andrews Norton, one of Unitarianism's leading theologians.
Church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT
A millennial group who believed in both Jesus and a mystic named Ann Lee. Since they were celibate and could only increase their numbers through recruitment and conversion, they eventually ceased to exist.
The Age of Reform
1. Temperance: American temperance society demanded total abstinence and prohibition laws. Alcohol consumption dropped 50%, 1820-1840
2.Public School Reforms- Improvement in School
3. Abolition- Increased number of Anti-Slavery movements
American Temperance Society
An organization group in which reformers are trying to help the ever present drink problem. This group was formed in Boston in 1826, and it was the first well-organized group created to deal with the problems drunkards had on societies well being, and the possible well-being of the individuals that are heavily influenced by alcohol.
Early promoter of the Temperance (Anti-Alcohol) movement in America. Follower of Timothy Dwight. A Presbyterian Calvinist at odds with the Unitarian ministers of Boston. Controversial head of Lane Seminary in Cincinnati, a school to promote Protestant Calvinism in the West.
Public School Reform
Horace Mann was a senator from Massachusetts who wanted to give children the adequate schooling needed. He advances public schools around the country. With his help double the amount of kids attended schools, teachers were not allowed to punish, teachers were trained professionally, and all schools were tax supported. This really increased the literacy rate in the US as other states followed his plan.
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, he was a prominent proponent of public school reform, and set the standard for public schools throughout the nation.
One of the first known textbooks, it is estimated that at least 120 million copies of McGuffey's Readers were sold between 1836 and 1960, sell about 30,000 copies a year. McGuffey's Readers are still in use today in some school systems, and by parents for home schooling purposes.
A person who advocated or supported the abolition of slavery in the U.S. Anti-Slavery movement.
William Lloyd Garrison
Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published the autobiography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
Abolitionist northern newspaper published by Frederick Douglass.
He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.
American Colonization Society
A Society that thought slavery was bad. They would buy land in Africa and get emancipated slaves to move there. One of these such colonies was made into what now is Liberia. Most sponsors just wanted to get blacks out of their country.
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)
American Anti-Slavery Society
Abolitionist society founded by William Lloyd Garrison, who advocated the immediate abolition of slavery. By 1838, the organization had more than 250,000 members across 1,350 chapters.
Angelina and Sarah Grimke
Daughters of a South Carolina slaveholder that were antislavery. Controversial because they spoke to audiences of both men and women at a time when it was thought indelicate to address male audiences. Womens' rights advocates as well. Thought they could gain women's rights if blacks gained their rights as well.
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption. Would urge and be successful at banning alcohol consumption in the United States.
Women's Rights Movement
Movement that worked for greater rights and opportunities for women. Began with the Seneca Falls Convention in New York in 1848. Women worked for rights like suffrage (the right to vote), equality in clothing, and property rights
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Deceleration of Sentiments
Modeled after Declaration of Independence Woman's movement
Dorothea Dix was a woman who was teaching Sunday school in prisons and she noticed that the prisoners weren't receiving the right treatment and care that they needed. She worked to try and make prisoners feel sorrow for their sins (penitent means sorrow). After her, the Pennsylvania System and the Auburn System were created for prisoners. The Auburn System was more popular because it was cheaper.
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill, beginning in the 1820's, she was responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S. and Canada. She succeeded in persuading many states to assume responsibility for the care of the mentally ill. She served as the Superintendant of Nurses for the Union Army during the Civil War.
Samuel Gridley Howe
In 1832, he became the first director of the New England Institution for the Education of the Blind (now Perkins School for the Blind), the first such institution in the United States. Howe directed the school for the rest of his life
Emerson and Thoreau,
Argued for a mystical and intuitive way of thinking, discovering oneself and looking for the essence of god in nature
Idealistic and impractical communities that rather than seeking to create an ideal government or reform the world, withdrew from the sinful, corrupt world to work their miracles in microcosm, hoping to imitate the elect state of affairs that existed among the Apostles.
Robert Owen/New Harmony
A Welsh socialist and social reformer. He is considered the father of the cooperative movement. He experimented through the New Harmony community, a utopian settlement in Indiana lasting from 1825 to 1827. It had 1,000 settlers, but a lack of authority caused it to break up.
John Humprhey Noyes
Noyes founded the group and founded the beliefs of the society. A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
French utopian socialist and began some form of feminism. Fourier declared that concern and cooperation were the secrets of social success. He believed workers would be recompensed for their labors according to their contribution. Fourier saw such cooperation occurring in communities he called "phalanxes". Phalanxes were based around structures called "grand hotels". These buildings were four level apartment complexes where the richest had the uppermost apartments and the poorest enjoyed a ground floor residence.
An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and German Catholics.
A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children. By John Humphrey Noyes, called a "free love" community.Including sharing of everything (including wives).