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anterior midgut

enlargement of the filter chamber posterior to the stomodeal valve where food is stored.

buccal cavity

the first part of the stomodeum, lying just within the mouth; its dilator muscles arising on the clypeus, and inserted before the frontal ganglion and its connectives.

cardiac valve

see stomodaeal valve.


sacs at the anterior end of the midgut which increase its absorptive capacity and may house symbionts.

cibarial pump

modified cibarial chamber/sucking organ in cicadas (for example).


the food pocket of the extraoral or preoral mouth cavity between the base of the hypopharynx and the undersurface of the clypeus.


posterior part of the anterior intestine.


an enlargement of the esophageal region of the stomodeum.


a tubular part of the stomodeum between the pharynx and crop, or sometimes extending to the stomach.

filter chamber

a part of the alimentary canal in Hemiptera in which the two ends of the ventriculus and the beginning of the intestine are bound together in a membranous and muscular sheath.


part of the alimentary canal comprising the esophagus, crop, and proventriculus.


part of the alimentary canal comprising the ileum and colon.


the anterior part of the anterior intestine, between the ventriculus or pylorus and the colon; small intestine.


refers to the cuticular lining of any internal organ system, such as foregut, hindgut, tracheae, and the ectodermally derived components of the reproductive system.

labial glands

the usual "salivary glands" of insects, opening by a median duct between the base of the hypopharynx and the labium, or on the hypopharynx.

Malpighian tubules

a principal excretory organ in the midgut attached to the anterior end of the hindgut, typically long and slender.

mandibular glands

a pair of glands often present in insects opening mesally at the bases of the mandibles.


small projections that function to increase the area of the cell membrane through which absorption occurs, bordering the digestive cells of the midgut.


part of the alimentary canal comprising the caecae, ventriculus, Malpighian tubules and pylorus.

peritrophic membrane

a cylindrical membranous envelope surrounding the food in the ventriculus, and sometimes extending into the proctodeum; generated from the ventricular epithelium, either from all or a part of the length of the latter or from a ring of specialized cells at its anterior end.

pharyngeal pump

modified pharynx in Lepidoptera, Apoidea, and Anoplura; draws liquid up the feeding tube.


the part of the stomodeum between the mouth or buccal cavity and the esophagus, the dorsal dilator muscles of which arise on the frons and the dorsal part of the cranium and are inserted posterior to the frontal ganglion and its connectives; usually not extending beyond the nerve ring of the head, but in some insects there is a posterior pharynx behind the brain.

posterior midgut

the functional stomach; part of the filter chamber.

proctodeal valve

controls the entrance to the hindgut from the ventriculus.

proventricular teeth

dense intima in the proventriculus produced into lobes and teeth.


a specialized part of the stomodeum immediately anterior to the ventriculus (gizzard, chewing stomach).

pyloric valve

a fold usually situated in the pyloric region of the proctodeum, but sometimes formed by the posterior end of the ventriculus.


an anterior part of the proctodeum usually containing the pyloric valve, sometimes distinctly differentiated from the true intestinal region and forming anatomically the rear end of the stomach.

rectal pads

posterior enlargements of the hindgut, involved in water absorption.

rectal valve

a circular or lobate fold of the proctodeal wall between the anterior intestine and the rectum.


the posterior intestine, including the rectal sac and the posterior, narrow rectum proper opening at the anus.

salivary duct

connects the salivary glands with the salivarium.

salivary glands

see Labial Glands.

salivary reservoir

a fine, membranous pouch associated with the salivary glands.

stomodaeal valve

the cylindrical or funnel-shaped invagination of the posterior end of the stomodeum into the cardiac part of the ventriculus.

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