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group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
theory that states that natural disasters such as floods and volcanic eruptions shaped Earth's landforms and caused the extinction of some species (Cuvier)
principle that states that the changes in landforms result from slow changes over a long period of time (Hutton)
theory that states that the geologic processes that shape Earth are uniform through time (Lyell)
inherited trait that is selected over time because it allows organisms to better survive in their environment
measure of an organism's ability to survice and produce offspring relative to other members of a population
body part that is similar in structure on different organisms, but performs different functions (ex. limbs of humans and bat wings)
body part that is similar in function as a body part of another organism, but is structurally different (ex. moth wings and bird wings)
remnants of an organ or structure that functioned in an earlier ancestor (ex. wisdom teeth or tail bones)
proportion of one allele, compared with all the alleles for that trait, in the gene pool
pathway of natural selection in which one uncommon phenotype is selected over a more common phenotype
pathway of natural selection in which intermediate phenotypes are selected over phenotypes at both extremes
pathway of natural selection in which two opposite, but equally uncommon, phenotypes are selected over the most common phenotype
change in allele frequencies due to chance alone, occurring most commonly in small populations
selection in which certain traits enhance mating success, traits are, therefore, passed on to offspring
finals stage in speciation, in which members of isolated populations are either no longer able to mate or mo longer able to produce viable offspring
isolation between populations due to differences in courtship or mating behavior
isolation between populations due to barriers related to time, such as differences in mating periods or differences in the time of day that individuals are most active
evolution toward similar characteristics in unrelated species, resulting from adaptations to similar environmental conditions
evolution of one or more closely related species into different species; resulting from adaptations to different environmental conditions
theory that states that speciation occurs suddenly and rapidly followed by long periods of little evolutionary change
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