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nasogastric tubing, ethmoid hematoma

2 most common causes of bilateral epistaxis

guttural pouch mycosis

most common cause of unilateral epistaxis

ethmoid hematoma

which cause of epistaxis is most likely to be malodorous?


term that we use for the malodorous discharge from the nose of a horse with an ethmoid hematoma

guttural pouch mycosis

horse has intermittent, unilateral epistaxis over the past few months. suddenly it has a very voluminous bilateral epistaxis. what is most likely the cause?


what percent of horses with GPM will experience a fatal bleed?

ethmoid hematoma

with which of the causes of epistaxis can you see facial deformity?

intralesional formalin

what is the medical way to treat an ethmoid hematoma?

laser ablation

what is the surgical way to treat an ethmoid hematoma?


is GPM usually found in younger or older horses?


on a lateral radiograph of the head of a horse, will you see a fluid line in the guttural pouch if that horse has a GPM?


in which compartment of the guttural pouch do you see the fungal plaques associated with GPM?


where in the medial compartment of the guttural pouch do you see the fungal plaques?

internal carotid artery

which blood vessel do the fungal plaques grow around in the guttural pouch?


the most common clinical sign of GPM is epistaxis. what is the second most common clinical sign?

dorsal displacement of the soft palate

what is the sequel of GPM that results in the dysphagia seen in these horses?

pharyngeal branch of the vagus

what nervous structure runs through the guttural pouch that can be damaged by the fungal plaques, resulting in the DDSP?

obliteration of internal carotid artery

if a horse is diagnosed with GPM and has experienced episodes of epistaxis in the past, what is the main goal of your treatment?

detachable self-sealing latex balloon, transarterial coil embolisation

2 most common methods of vessel obliteration with GPM

topical antifungals

if a horse is diagnosed with GPM and has NOT experienced any episodes of epistaxis, what is the main course of treatment?

ethmoid hematoma

are you more likely to see purulent discharge with a GPM or an ethmoid hematoma?

nasal passage

where are you if through the endoscope all you see are straight flat walls on either side of the scope?

pulmonary arterial, intrathoracic

in the capillary stress theory as a possible cause of EIPH, what 2 pressures are increased that leads to the rupture of the capillaries?

epistaxis, exercise intolerance

horses with EIPH rarely show clinical signs, but if they do, what are the 2 most common clinical signs?


when using radiographs to aid in the diagnosis of EIPH, where would you be most likely to opacification in the lungs?

transtracheal wash, bronchoalveolar lavage

other than endoscopy and radiography, what are the other 2 ways to diagnose EIPH?


what is the main thing you're looking for in a TTW or BAL from an EIPH horse?


main treatment used for EIPH

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