General Exam 3 Study Guide

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Health Psychology
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Terms in this set (107)
LEDS (Life Events and Difficulties Schedule)Extensive manual that provides rules for rating both acute and chronic forms of stress. Allows raters to consider person's unique circumstances when rating each life event.ResilienceThe healthy psychological and physical functioning after a potentially traumatic eventWho has the most resilience?Older, well educated, menSympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) systemDesigned to mobilize resources to prepare for fight or flight response Begins in hypothalamus -> stimulates sympathetic nervous system -> causes inner portion of adrenal gland to secrete adrenaline and noradrenaline -> cause increase in heart rate and body metabolizing glucose more rapidlyHypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) systemHypothalamus releases "corticotropin-releasing hormone" -> stimulates pituitary gland - which then secretes adrenocrticotropic hormone - this induces adrenal cortex to produce stress hormones called glucocorticoidsCortisolPrepares the body for fight or flight and inhibits the innate immune responseAllostatic loadBiological cost of adapting to stress High when stressed, low when relaxedLeukocytes (lymphocytes)white blood cells produced in bone marrow and then sent various places in bodyB CellMatures in BONE marrow - produces specific antibodies to respond to specific antigensAntigensForeign bodies such as viruses and bacteria or internal invaders like tumors or cancer cellsT cellsMatures in the thymus - important endocrine gladnT- Cells become activated when...macrophages (big eater) cells detect antigens and start to engulf themWhen a B-Cell antigen it begins to divide and produce antibodies that circulate bloodCytokinesSmall protein molecules that serve as chemical messengers allowing communicating for immune cells Also send signals to brainStress is linked to...the suppression of the immune systemPositive PsychologyFocuses on human traits and resources such as humor, gratitude, and compassion, that might direct implications for our physical and mental well-beingMyocardial Infarctionresults from blockage in a section of coronary arterial systemType Dtendency to experience negative emotions and also to feel insecure and anxiousPsychological interventions for stress relatedwriting down feelings biofeedback relaxation techniques cognitive behavior therapy - headaches especiallyAdjustment DisorderA psychological response to a common stressor that results in clinically significant behavioral or emotional systomsPTSD symptoms1. intrusion 2. avoidance 3. negative cognitions and mood 4. arousal and reactivityPTSD sex diffmore common in womenSoldier Suicidenew common problem with PTSDPTSD cortisolSimilar compared to healthy peoplePTSD HippocampusSmaller in people with PTSDPrevention and Treatment of Stress DisordersReduce frequency of traumatic events -adolescent access to firearms -changes in law and social policy prevent maladaptive responses to stress through prepping cognitive behavior techiquesStress Inoculation TrainingPrepares people to tolerate an anticipated threat by changing the things they say to themselves before or during stressful eventTreatment of Stress DisordersTelephone hotlines Crisis Intervention Psychological Debriefing - talk about it structured discussionMedications for Treatment of StressAntidepressants sometimes used Antipsychotics tooProlonged exposureCognitive Behavioral treatment Vividly recount the traumatic event over and over until decrease in emotional response -higher drop out rate -very effective if you stick with itRelaxation TrainingCog-Behavioral TreatmentMood DisordersInvolve much more severe alterations in mood for much longer periods of time - used to be called affective disordersManiaCharacterized by intense and unrealistic feelings of excitement or euphoriaDepressionFeelings of extraordinary sadness and dejectionMixed episode Casesthe person experiences rapidly alternating moods such as sadness, euphoria, and irritability, all within the same episode of illness.Hypomanic EpisodeA person experiences mania for at least four daysPostpartum "blues"Changeable mood, crying easily, sadness, and irritability often liberally intermixed with happy feelingsAnaclitic depressionDepression in infantsSpecifiersDifferent patters of symptoms or featuresAtypical Features (MDE)marked mood reactivityCatatonic Features (MDE)Severe disturbances in motor functionMelancholic features (MDE)loss of interest or pleasure in almost all activitiesPsychotic features (MDE)loss of contact with reality, often in forms of delusions or hallucinationsMood CongruentDelusions or hallucinations that are consistent with a person's mooddouble depressionMDD coexists with dysthymiaSerotonin Transporter GeneGenetic Influence A gene involved in transmission and reuptake of serotoninGenotype - environment interactionFound that individuals who had the genotype with ss alles were twice as likely to develop major depressive episode following 4 or more stressful life events in past 5 years compared to ll allelesMonoamine Theory of DepressionNEUROCHEMICAL Thought depression was sometimes due to an absolute or relative depletion of one or both of these neurotransmitters (serotonin or norepinephrine) at important receptor sites in the brain OLD THEORY NOT TRUE - research suggests dopamine dysfunction plays signif. role in some forms of depressionDexamethasonA potent suppressor of plasma cortisol in normal individualshypothyroidismpeople with low thyroid levelsDamage to the left anterior prefrontal cortex...NOT THE RIGHT often leads to depressionOrbital Prefrontal CortexInvolved in responsivity to rewardDorsolateral prefontal cortexAssociated with decreased cognitive controlHippocampusMemory and learning and hormonal regulationAnterior Cingulate CortexShows decreased volume and abnormally low levels of activation in patients with depressionAmygdalaFear and aggression, involved in the perception of threat and in directing attention, tends to show increased activation in individuals with depressionIndependent life eventsStressful events that are independent of the person's behavior and personality - losing job cause company shutting down, or losing house in hurricaneDependent life eventsevents that may have been at least partially generated by teh depressed person's behavior or personalityChronic StressOne or more forms of stress ongoing for at least several months (poverty, lasting marital discord, medical problems, etc)Neuroticism or negative affectivityRefers to stable and heritable personality trait that involves a temperamental sensitivity to negative stimuli.Becks Cognitive TheoryHypothesized that cognitive symptoms of depression often precede and cause the affective or mood symptoms rather than visa versaDepressogenic SchemasDysfunctional beliefs that are rigid, extreme, and counterproductive and are thought to leave one susceptible to depression when experiencing stressNegative Automatic ThoughtsThoughts that often occur just below the surface of awareness and often involve unpleasant pessimistic predictionsNegative Cognitive TriadNegatives thoughts... about self about one's experiences and surrounding world one's futureDichotomous or all or none reasoningA tendency to link to extremesSelective AbstractionTendency to focus on one negative detail of a situation while ignoring other elements of the situationArbitrary InferenceInvolves jumping to conclusino based on minimal or no evidenceLearned HelplessnessWhen we learn we have no control over aversive events, we learn we are helplessness, unmotivated to try to respond in the futureAttributionsProcess of assigning causes to things that happen internal/external global/specific stable/unstablePessimistic attributional stylecognitive style involving a tendency to make internal, stable, and global attributions for negative life eventsreformulated helplessness theorywomen more likely to have depression because of neuroticismhopelessness thoeryno control and positive bad outcome will occurrumination response style cognitive theory of depressionfocuses on diff responses to feelings of sadness and distress and how differing styles affect the course of their depressed feelingsruminationwhen people focus intently on how they feel and why - women ruminate more than men when depressedLithiumreduces dopaminergic activity and are antimanicMonomine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)Class of antidepressant drug sometimes used to treat depressionTricyclic antidepressentsKnown to increase neurotransmission of the monoaminesSelective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)No more effective than tricyclics but have fewer side effects, are better tolerated, and less toxic in large doses Can treat those with significant and mild depressionAntidepressant TreatmentRequires 3 to 5 weeks to take effect depressive epsidodes usually last 6 to 9 months untreatedMood StabilizerDrugs that have both antimanic and antidepressant effectsAnticonvulsantsEffective in patients who do not respond well to lithium or who get bad side effects for it -more risk for attempted and completed suicide on convulsants than on lithiumAnti psychotic medicationsGiven to both bipolar and unipolar patients who show signs of psychosisElectroconvulsive TherapySeverely depressed patients, or manic episodesTranscranial Magnetic StimulationNoninvasive of the focal stimulation of the brain in patients who are awake. Brief but intense magnetic fields induce electrical activity in certain parts of the cortex are deliveredDeep Brain StimulationInvolves implanting an electrode in the brain and then stimulating that area with an electric currentCognitive Behavioral TheoryDeveloped by beck - here and now problems rather than remote casual issues that psychodynamic often addressMindfullness based cog therapyChange the way in which people relate to their thoughts feels and bodily sensations, rather than trying to alter content of their negative thinkingBehavioral Activation TreatmentFocuses intensely ongetting patients to become more engaged in enviornment and interpersonal relationshipsInterpersonal TherapyCurrent relationship issuesInterpersonal and social rhythm therapyrecognize effect of interpersonal events on social and circadian rhythms5 factor modelneuroticism extraversion/interverision openess to experience agreeableness/antagonism conscientiousnesspersonalitythe set of unique traits and behaviors that characterize the individualDialectical behavior therapyfor borderline personality disorder accept negative affect without self destructive or maladaptive behaviorsMentalizationBPD uses therapeutic relationship to help patients develop the skills they need to accurately understand their own feelings and emotions as well as othersmesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway (MCLP)center of psychoactive drug activation in the brain. This area is involved in the release of dopamine and in mediating the rewarding properties of drugs.Naltrexonean opiate antagonist that helps reduce the craving for alcohol by blocking the pleasure-producing effects of alcohol.Nicotineaddictive alkaloid that is the chief active ingredient in tobacco and a drug of dependence.