-Depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, inhalants, tranquilizers): Produce drowsiness, sedation, or sleep. All are potentially physically addictive, effects of depressants are addictive. Slow down or impair the activity of the Central Nervous System.
o Alcohol - Moderate doses produce euphoria and feeling of relaxation, large doses slow down breathing and impair memory, concentration. And muscle coordination. Frontal lobes become depressed, releases ACh throughout CNS
- Opiates (heroine, morphine, demerol, oxycontin): Relieve pain and produce feelings of euphoria. Mimic endorphins. Occupy endorphin receptors in the brain.
o Heroin/Morphine - Morphine is main ingredient in opium. Heroin 3x as strong as morphine. Strong pain relievers. Induce drowsiness, slow heart rate, and suppress coughs. Produce a relaxed euphoria and sense of well being that last for hours. Stimulate receptors for endorphins.
- Stimulants (caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine): Increase brain activity, all at least mildly addicting. Enhance activity of Central Nervous System.
o Caffeine - Promotes wakefulness, mental alertness, vigilance, and faster thought processes. Can produce anxiety, restlessness, and increased heart rate. Stimulates release of dopamine in brain's prefrontal cortex by blocking adenosine receptors.
o Nicotine - Increases mental alertness and reduces fatigue or drowsiness. Increases brain activity in many areas, including frontal lobes, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala
o Cocaine - Produces intense euphoria, mental alertness, and self-confidence. Blocks the reuptake of different neurotransmitters - dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Blocking them increases effects of the neurotransmitters.
- Psychedelics (mescaline, LSD, marijuana): Create profound perceptual distortions, alter mood, and affect thinking. Distort brain's processing of sensory experiences. Affect the re-uptake of serotonin.
- Club Drugs (ecstasy and dissociative anesthetic drugs):
o Ecstasy - Rapid heart beat, muscle tension, dehydration, and hyperthermia. Large release of serotonin, blocks serotonin reuptake which amplifies effects. Damages serotonin receptors in brain causing depression and bipolar