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NCEA LEVEL 2 BIOLOGY; gene expression
Includes; protein synthesis, gene mutations, and metabolic pathways.
Terms in this set (45)
Twisted double helix, which contains a sequence of base pairs; Adenine bonded to Thymine and Cytosine to Guanine. It holds the genetic code for creating an organism. 2 stranded molecule.
Protein coding regions of genes in eukaryotic DNA, which are interrupted by introns.
Non-protein coding regions of genes in eukaryotic DNA. there are from 1-30 in a single gene. they are edited out of the protein coding Sequence during protein Synthesis, but may go On as a regular function afterwards.
Occurs in the nucleus. A process where the template strand of DNA is transcripted into mRNA (copying the DNA triplet codes into a complementary mRNA strand) which is then sent into the cytoplasm, through the nuclear pore.
Triplet nucleotides on mRNA (codes for aminonacids)
The strand of DNA used in transcription to produce mRNA
The other strand in the DNA molecule, often called the complementary strand as it's nucleotide sequence complements the template strand nucleotides sequence.
A chain of amino acids produced in the cytoplasm as a result of the translation process. Amino acids are connected by peptide bonds.
The process of "translating" the mRNA Codons,with tRNA anticodons in the ribosome - to form amino acids, which make the polypeptide chains. Occurs in the cytoplasm in free ribosomes or on the rough ER.
Messenger RNA. A single stranded molecule containing oxygen, ribose sugar, and nucleotide bases; Adenine and Uracil, Guanine and Cytosine. It is synthesized from DNA and is sent Thorough the nuclear pore into the ribosomes in the cytoplasm, and specifies the primary structure of a protein.
Tells the ribosome where to stop converting mRNA. A biological polymer made from 20 different aminoacid monomers.
Created by protein synthesis. The Exon is translated into a protein; beginning at the start codon and ending at the stop codon. After the stop codon, another protein will be created.. etc, until the entire mRNA has been translated. These proteins will then be folded into its functional form.
Primary structure of functional protein
Amino acids linked by peptide bonds. (Polypeptide chain)
Secondary structure of functional protein
The twisting of the polypeptide chain as it grows. Formation of A coiled helix (maintained by hydrogen bonds) or a pleated sheet (2 Polypeptide chains connected by hydrogen bonds)
Tertiary structure of functional protein
A 3D structure, formed by the Folding of the secondary structure). The bonds holding these together can be destroyed by presence of heavy metals, some solvents and unfavourable conditions of pH and temperature.
Quaternary structure of a functional protein
Complex proteins existing as groups of Polypeptide chains, arranged into a functional protein. Eg; haemoglobin: consists of 4 polypeptide subunits - 2 identical alpha chains and 2 identical beta chains.
Elongated structures, often made up of repeating units, provide stiffness and rigidity to the more fluid components of cells and tissues. Important for structural and contractile roles and are not water soluble. They are tough physically; may be supple or stretchy. They are parallel Polypeptide chains in long fibres or sheets. Found in connective tissue, cartilage, bones, tendons and blood vessel walls (such as collagen)
Roughly spherical, many are enzymes and have a catalytic role in regulating metabolic pathways. Easily water soluble, polypeptide chains folded into a spherical shape - only functioning as a tertiary structure. They can be; enzymes - regulatory: insulin (hormones), transport: haemoglobin, and protective; antibodies.
Occurs if a protein loses its precise structure and becomes unable to carry out lots biological function. Causes are: unfavourable conditions of pH, temperature
A large (macro)molecule made up of repeated units (micromolecules)
A set of three nucleotides on DNA that specifies the amino acid for a polypeptide chain.
A purine (Adenine and guanine) or pyrimidine (Cytosine, thymine and uracil) used in the synthesis of nucleic acids. The building blocks of DNA. Provides genetic instructions for the organism. Made up of ribose sugar, a phosphate and one of four bases.
Either DNA (a double polymer of a nucleotides) or RNA (a polymer of nucleotides). Store the information to control cellular activity. Made up of repeating nucleotides.
A type of cell lacking a membrane enclosed nucleus and membrane enclosed organelles. Found in the kingdom Monera.
Type of cell with a membrane enclosed nucleus and organelles. Present in plants, animals and fungi.
Transfer RNA. An RNA molecule which functions by picking up specific amino acids, and recognising the appropriate Codons on the mRNA to transfer them to a growing polypeptide chain.
A base triplet on one end of the tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule (match up and produce the amino acid they code for)
The fact that more than one codon is used to code genetically for individual amino acids.
All DNA within a cell, held in genes.
One half of a replicated chromosome
Regulates DNA function
Ribose nucleic acid. A single strand of nucleotides linked together.
Sugar found in DNA. Lacks an oxygen atom
Sugar found in RNA. Has an oxygen atom.
Two ringed bases, that make up the longer bases. (Adenine and guanine)
Single ringed bases. ( Cytosine, uracil and thymine)
A, T, C, G. .found on nucleotides. Only one of the four can be used in a single nucleotide. Uracil is a base that replaces thymine on mRNA.
When a base is copied into DNA incorrectly, either by deletion, addition or substitution of a base.
Substitution gene mutation
An alternative base is copied into the DNA, other than the one intended. But only makes one incorrect production of an amino acid.
Addition gene mutation
A base is added to the DNA. Nucleotides sequence is fully disrupted (very harmful) as this causes a frame shift and all amino acids will be disrupted (majority are likely to produce wrong amino acid for protein)
A series of enzyme controlled chemical reactions occurring within a cell. There are multiple ______________s occurring within a cell. All steps are controlled by specific enzymes - which are expressed from DNA as a result of protein synthesis.
Leads to a metabolic block. With a _____ ____, it cannot make the enzyme the gene coded for, resulting in a lack of the enzyme in the organism.
Caused by a fault to the gene which codes for the enzyme to make tyrosine into melanin. Overall caused by lack of melanin.
A toxic substance which can cause brain damage. Caused by faults to both gene 1 which codes for the enzyme that converts phenyalanine into tyrosine and gene 2 which codes for the enzyme that converts tyrosine to melanin. Phenyalanine is produced into ________ (in albinism).
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
NCEA level 2 Cells: Respiration/Photosynthesis
NCEA Level 2 Biology- 2.4 External key words
Biology NCEA Level 2 - Gene Expression
Unit 3: Protein Synthesis
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