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Biology Honors Final Exam Review

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Number of divisions in mitosis?
1
Number of divisions in meiosis?
2
Final number of cells in mitosis?
2
Final number of cells in meiosis?
4
Final number of chromatids in mitosis?
46
Final number of chromatids in meiosis?
23
Type of cells created in mitosis?
Somites (body cells)
Type of cells created in meiosis?
Gametes (sex cells)
What divides in mitosis (sisters, homologs, or both)?
Sisters
What divides in meiosis (sisters, homologs, or both)?
Sisters and homologs
Does genetic exchange or crossover occur in mitosis?
No
Does genetic exchange or crossover occur in meiosis?
Yes (in prophase I)
Purpose of mitosis?
Repair, growth, and replaces body cells
Purpose of meiosis?
Sexual reproduction
Is purple an example of a genotype or phenotype?
Phenotype
Is PP an example of a genotype or a phenotype?
Genotype
What is another way to say that the alleles are homozygous?
True breeding
Is HH a homozygous or heterozygous?
Homozygous
What is the heterozygous genotype of HH?
Hh
According to Mendelian genetics, how many factors does a trait have?
2
Human height shows continuous variation, and pretend height has 14 alleles. Give the genotype for the shortest possible person.
tttttttttttttt
What is the type of heredity for a person with type A blood?
Dominance
What is the type of heredity for a person with type B blood?
Dominance
What is the type of heredity for a person with type O blood?
Recessive
What is the type of heredity for a person with type AB blood?
Codominance
Where are genes located on?
Chromosomes
What type of event marks the major transitions between the eras of the earth's history?
Mass Extinction
What type of event marks major transitions in earth's species?
Mass Extinction
The appearance of what changed the earth's early atmosphere?
Photosynthetic bacteria
What three things are thought to have provided the energy needed to make the earth's early biological molecules?
Lightning, radioactive isotopes, and volcanic action
What is the era associated with photosynthetic bacteria appearing?
Precambrian
What is the era associated with dinosaurs, reptiles, birds, and small mammals?
Mesozoic
What is the era associated with land and sea animals and plants?
Paleozoic
What is the era associated with mammals and humans?
Cenozoic
How many years back can you date an organic substance using C-14 dating?
60,000 years
What isotope is used to determine age of an organic substance?
C-14
What atom is used to determine age of an ancient rock sample?
Uranium
How many half live have passed for a sample that decreased from 100 g C-14 to 25 g C-14?
2
When species mate during different seasons it is called what?
Temporal isolation
When species have different mating rituals it is called what?
Behavioral isolation
Offspring cannot make babies are called what?
Infertile offspring
When offspring cannot physically mate due to structural differences it is called what?
Physical incompatibility
Which scientist developed the theory of use and disuse?
Lamarck
Offspring inherit traits acquired during life is the theory of what?
Use and disuse
Which scientist developed the theory of descent with modification?
Darwin
What is the theory of descent with modification?
The change in traits over time
Which scientist developed the theory that the earth is older than 6,000 years?
Lyell
Which scientist developed the theory that the remains of extinct animals are present in the fossil record?
Cuvier
Which scientist developed the theory that more organisms are born than can survive?
Malthus
What is the name for a structure that is no longer used?
Vestigial structure
What does the presence of vestigial structures suggest?
Evolution
What is thought to have evolved via endosymbiosis?
Eukaryotic cells
When a prokaryote begins living on another prokaryote and they developed a symbiotic relationship it is called what?
Endosymbiosis
What did the bacteria that were taken in by endosymbiosis become?
Mitochondria and chloroplasts
Where are the Galápagos Islands located?
Off the coast of Ecuador
What are Darwin's four tenets?
Overproduction, variation, selection, and adaptation
Organisms that produce more offspring than can survive is the theory of what?
Overproduction
Individuals best suited to the environment live to reproduce and leave the most offspring is the theory of what?
Selection
Overtime, favorable traits accumulate the population is the theory of what?
Adaptation
What is the name of Darwin's famous book that details his theory of evolution by natural selection?
On the Origin of Species
What are the similar bone structures of a cat foreleg, a human arm, a dolphin flipper and a bat wing called?
Homologous structures
What are the similar function of the wings of a bat and the wings of an insect called?
Analogous structures
Approximately how old is the earth?
4.6 billion years old
What do scientists think the hereditary material of the earliest life form was?
RNA
Which researchers produced organic molecules, including amino acids, in an environment that simulated the environment of early earth?
Miller and Urey
What are the words in an organism's scientific name?
Genus and species
Who developed binomial nomenclature?
Carolus Linneaus
What are the three domains of life?
Archaea, eubacteria, and eukaryota
Is the kingdom of Archaea a prokaryote or eukaryote?
Prokaryote
Is the kingdom of Eubacteria a prokaryote or eukaryote?
Prokaryote
Is the kingdom of Protista a prokaryote or eukaryote?
Eukaryote
Is the kingdom of Fungi a prokaryote or eukaryote?
Eukaryote
Is the kingdom of Plantae a prokaryote or eukaryote?
Eukaryote
Is the kingdom of Animalia a prokaryote or eukaryote?
Eukaryote
Is the kingdom of Archaea single celled, multi celled, or both?
Single celled
Is the kingdom of Eubacteria single celled, multi celled, or both?
Single celled
Is the kingdom of Protista single celled, multi celled, or both?
Both
Is the kingdom of Fungi single celled, multi celled, or both?
Both
Is the kingdom of Plantae single celled, multi celled, or both?
Multi celled
Is the kingdom of Animalia single celled, multi celled, or both?
Multi celled
What 4 kinds of genetic material can a virus have?
Double stranded DNA, single stranded DNA, double stranded RNA, and single stranded RNA
What is injected into a person when they receive a vaccine?
A dead or weakened form of the virus
What type of virus invades a bacterium?
Bacteriophage
What is the viral capsid made of?
Protein
Where must a virus reproduce?
The host
Can HIV invade any cell in its host's body?
No
In which cycle does a virus invades a host cell, takes over cellular machinery, copy itself many times and the makes the copies burst out to invade other cells?
Lytic cycle
How long does the human immune system take to respond to a virus it has never seen before?
7-15 days
How long does the human immune system take to respond to a virus that it has seen before?
2-4 days
Do antibiotics work for viral infections?
No
Reproduction by mitosis is a process called what?
Binary fission
Bacteria picking up foreign DNA from its environment is called what?
Transformation
A virus carries DNA from one bacterium to another during infection is called what?
Transduction
An organism that obtains energy from inorganic molecules is called a what?
Chemotroph
What is the function of a flagellum?
Locomotion
What is the function of a saprobe?
To break down dead organisms
What category of organism lives in a long-term relationship on a host and harms the host in the process?
Parasite
What happens in a symbiotic, also called mutualistic, relationship?
Both organisms benefit
No nucleus, no organelles, smaller, and DNA ring in the center are characteristics unique to what?
Prokaryotes
What environmental feature would be ideal for prokaryotes that can only reproduce by binary fission?
Stable environment
What is the most ancient domain of life?
Archaea
In what types of environments are Archae typically found?
Extreme
Where does a halophile live?
In high salt
Where does a thermoacidophile live?
In heat and acid
What Domain contains the kind of bacteria that causes diseases?
Eubacteria
What polysaccharide is found in bacterial cell walls?
Peptidoglycan
What color would a gram negative bacteria look?
Brown or red
What color would a gram positive bacteria look?
Purple
In what kind of environment are protists typically found?
Moist
What protista diseases can be contracted from drinking untreated water?
Amoebic dysentery and giardosis
What protist causes malaria?
Plasmodium
Most protists are (single or multi celled)?
Single
What are two really big multicellular protists?
Kelp and algae
An amoeba ingests other organisms. Is it plant-like, animal-like or fungi-like?
Animal-like
Protists that are plant-like get energy via what?
Photosynthesis
What are three novel features that evolved in the kingdom protista?
Eukaryotic cells, flagella, ocelli, sexual reproduction, and multi celled
What is another name for an eyespot?
Ocelli
What can an eye spot detect?
Light
What causes a red tide?
Dinoflagellates
What is the process where a piece of fungi comes off to create a new organism?
Budding
What eats dead tissue?
Saprobes
What feeds by secreting digestive enzymes into its food to break down the food and absorb the nutrients?
Fungi
What are the only unicellular fungi?
Yeast
Are fungi autotrophs or heterotrophs?
Heterotrophs
The fungal cell wall contains the polysaccharide what?
Chitin
The long, slender filaments that make up the fungal body are called what?
Hyphae
A mat of hyphae is called a what?
Mycelium
Cheese flavors, beer, alcohol, antibiotics, and bread are products made by using what?
Fungi
Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts are examples of what?
Bryophytes
Horsetails, lycophytes, and ferns are examples of what?
Pteridophytes
Pine trees, evergreens, conifers, and ginkgoes are examples of what?
Gymnosperms
Flowering plants are examples of what?
Angiosperms
What does the term gymnosperms mean?
Naked seed
What does the term angiosperm mean?
Flowering plants
Where are the seeds of Gymnosperms?
In cones
Where are the seeds of Angiosperms?
In fruits
What part of the flower becomes a fruit?
Ovary
Protecting and nourishing the embryo is the job of what?
Seed
Protecting the sperm to prevent desiccation and helping the sperm travel in plants is the job of what?
Pollen
Growth in response to light is called what?
Phototropism
Growth in response to gravity is called what?
Gravitotropism
Growth in response to touch is called what?
Thigmotropism
What is responsible for vertical growth in plants?
Apical bud
Gas exchange is the function of a what in plants?
Stomata
What are plant cell walls made of?
Cellulose
Which group of plants use animals to aid in pollination and dispersal of embryos?
Angiosperms
Which group of plants must live near water?
Bryophytes
Which kind of root grows deep into the ground?
Taproot
Which kind of root has net-like extensions?
Fibrous root
Which kind of plants are the most abundant on earth?
Angiosperms
Xylem transports water and what from roots to shoots?
Minerals and nutrients
What transports water, minerals, and nutrients from roots to shoots?
Xylem
Xylem transports water, minerals, and nutrients from which two places?
Roots to shoots
Phloem transports what from shoots to roots?
Sugars
What transports sugars from shoots to roots?
Phloem
Phloem transports sugars from which two places?
Shoots to roots
What kind of stem does an onion have?
Bulb
What kind of stem does a potato have?
Tuber
A water proof layer that prevents water loss from the leaf by transpiration is called what?
Waxy cuticle
What does the word desiccation mean?
To dry out
What does the word terrestrial mean?
Land
What are hair-like extensions on roots called?
Root hairs
What are the functions of root hairs?
To increase surface area and absorb water and minerals
Our skin is roughly equivalent to a plant's what tissue?
Dermal
Plants that have no wood are called what kind of plants?
Herbaceous
In woody plants, the dermal tissue is called what?
Cork or bark
Is the dermal tissue alive or dead in a woody plant?
Dead
Xylem is made of which two kind of cells?
Vessel elements and tracheids
Are the cells that make up xylem alive or dead?
Dead
The bottom of tracheid cells are what to allow the passage of water?
Perforated
The bottom of which cells are perforated to allow for the passage of water?
Tracheid
What are the holes that allow water to pass horizontally from tracheids to vessel elements?
Pits
Sieve tube members carry what?
Sugars
Sieve tube members lack what?
Organelles
Protecting the growing root tip is the job of what?
Root cap
What kind of root grows above ground and helps supports tall or long stems?
Adventitious
Stems that run horizontally on top of the ground are called what?
Stolons
Stems that run horizontally underground are called what?
Rhizomes
Roots that extend from the stem to the ground to support a tall shoot are are called what?
Prop roots
Are rhizomes stems or roots?
Stems
The process of the embryo growing out of the seed is called what?
Germination
Another name for the embryonic root is what?
Radicle
What is a region of continuous growth?
Meristem
What is the name of the meristem that contributes to primary growth?
Apical meristem
What kind of symmetry does a sponge have?
Asymmetrical
What kind of symmetry does a starfish have?
Radial
What kind of symmetry does a human have?
Bilateral
Do animal cells have cell walls?
No
Are animal cells diploid of haploid?
Diploid
What classes of animals are homeotherms?
Mammalia and aves
Do homeotherms or ectotherms have higher metabolisms?
Homeotherms
Are homeotherms or ectotherms more active in cold weather?
Homeotherms
How would an ectotherm get warm?
By basking in the sun
In advanced chordates, what does the nerve cord become?
Spinal cord and brain
What becomes parts of the throat, jaw, and ear in terrestrial animals?
Pharyngeal clefts
What happens to the pharyngeal clefts in most marine animals?
They evolve into gills
Which kind of marine animals have jaws and can eat larger food?
Gnathostomes
Animals that have a head with well developed sensory organs and a large brain are called what?
Craniates
What mode of nutrition is common to all animals?
Heterotrophs
Animals were enabled to eat a lager variety of food when what what event happened?
A variety of teeth evolved
What phylum contains animals that sting and have radial symmetry?
Cnidarians
What is a shark skeleton composed of?
Cartilage
Frogs, salamanders, skinks, newts, and salamander toads are classified as what?
Amphibians
Snakes, turtles, and alligators are classified as what?
Reptiles
The adult animal in this phylum is sessile and asymmetric. What is the phylum and the animal?
Porifera and sponge
What are four features that make birds well adapted to flight?
Wings, feathers, hollow bones, light beak, one ovary, brain, and well developed breathing
Frogs, toads, caterpillars, butterflies, and meal worms are animals that all undergo complete what?
Metamorphosis
What characteristic puts a member of Phylum Chordata into Subphylum Vertebrata?
Vertebrae
Which mollusk is most is cephalized - a clam or an octopus?
Octopus
The appearance of jaws allowed gills to what?
Specialize for breathing
What are four reasons amphibians must remain moist and live in a moist environment?
Inefficient lungs, must reproduce in water, young tadpole breathes through gills, eggs have no shell
What is the oldest fossilized bird?
Archaeoptryx
What are the bird like features of Archeoptryx?
Wings, feathers, and a beak
What are the reptile like features of Archeoptryx?
Teeth, clawed digits, and a long reptilian tail
Which two factors very important for predicting how much time and energy an animal will invest raising its young?
Number of offspring and social behavior
Joint evolution of the brain and senses is called what?
Cephalization
Which class are birds classified in?
Aves
Insects with an exoskeleton must what in order to grow?
Molt
Would you expect an organism with blubber to be endothermic or exothermic?
Endothermic
What is the main defining feature of Phylum Arthropoda?
Jointed appendages
You find a 4-legged vertebrate with skin, but no hair, living under a damp rock in the forest. What class is the creature in?
Amphibia
What two features of a land animal does a lungfish have?
Lungs and appendages to walk on the bottom
Mammals that lay eggs are called what?
Monotremes
Young animals that climb into a pouch to mature are called what?
Marsupials
Animals that have placenta to feed the baby are called what?
Eutherians
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