Biology Honors Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (225)
Number of divisions in mitosis?
Number of divisions in meiosis?
Final number of cells in mitosis?
Final number of cells in meiosis?
Final number of chromatids in mitosis?
Final number of chromatids in meiosis?
Type of cells created in mitosis?
Somites (body cells)
Type of cells created in meiosis?
Gametes (sex cells)
What divides in mitosis (sisters, homologs, or both)?
What divides in meiosis (sisters, homologs, or both)?
Sisters and homologs
Does genetic exchange or crossover occur in mitosis?
Does genetic exchange or crossover occur in meiosis?
Yes (in prophase I)
Purpose of mitosis?
Repair, growth, and replaces body cells
Purpose of meiosis?
Is purple an example of a genotype or phenotype?
Is PP an example of a genotype or a phenotype?
What is another way to say that the alleles are homozygous?
Is HH a homozygous or heterozygous?
What is the heterozygous genotype of HH?
According to Mendelian genetics, how many factors does a trait have?
Human height shows continuous variation, and pretend height has 14 alleles. Give the genotype for the shortest possible person.
What is the type of heredity for a person with type A blood?
What is the type of heredity for a person with type B blood?
What is the type of heredity for a person with type O blood?
What is the type of heredity for a person with type AB blood?
Where are genes located on?
What type of event marks the major transitions between the eras of the earth's history?
What type of event marks major transitions in earth's species?
The appearance of what changed the earth's early atmosphere?
What three things are thought to have provided the energy needed to make the earth's early biological molecules?
Lightning, radioactive isotopes, and volcanic action
What is the era associated with photosynthetic bacteria appearing?
What is the era associated with dinosaurs, reptiles, birds, and small mammals?
What is the era associated with land and sea animals and plants?
What is the era associated with mammals and humans?
How many years back can you date an organic substance using C-14 dating?
What isotope is used to determine age of an organic substance?
What atom is used to determine age of an ancient rock sample?
How many half live have passed for a sample that decreased from 100 g C-14 to 25 g C-14?
When species mate during different seasons it is called what?
When species have different mating rituals it is called what?
Offspring cannot make babies are called what?
When offspring cannot physically mate due to structural differences it is called what?
Which scientist developed the theory of use and disuse?
Offspring inherit traits acquired during life is the theory of what?
Use and disuse
Which scientist developed the theory of descent with modification?
What is the theory of descent with modification?
The change in traits over time
Which scientist developed the theory that the earth is older than 6,000 years?
Which scientist developed the theory that the remains of extinct animals are present in the fossil record?
Which scientist developed the theory that more organisms are born than can survive?
What is the name for a structure that is no longer used?
What does the presence of vestigial structures suggest?
What is thought to have evolved via endosymbiosis?
When a prokaryote begins living on another prokaryote and they developed a symbiotic relationship it is called what?
What did the bacteria that were taken in by endosymbiosis become?
Mitochondria and chloroplasts
Where are the Galápagos Islands located?
Off the coast of Ecuador
What are Darwin's four tenets?
Overproduction, variation, selection, and adaptation
Organisms that produce more offspring than can survive is the theory of what?
Individuals best suited to the environment live to reproduce and leave the most offspring is the theory of what?
Overtime, favorable traits accumulate the population is the theory of what?
What is the name of Darwin's famous book that details his theory of evolution by natural selection?
On the Origin of Species
What are the similar bone structures of a cat foreleg, a human arm, a dolphin flipper and a bat wing called?
What are the similar function of the wings of a bat and the wings of an insect called?
Approximately how old is the earth?
4.6 billion years old
What do scientists think the hereditary material of the earliest life form was?
Which researchers produced organic molecules, including amino acids, in an environment that simulated the environment of early earth?
Miller and Urey
What are the words in an organism's scientific name?
Genus and species
Who developed binomial nomenclature?
What are the three domains of life?
Archaea, eubacteria, and eukaryota
Is the kingdom of Archaea a prokaryote or eukaryote?
Is the kingdom of Eubacteria a prokaryote or eukaryote?
Is the kingdom of Protista a prokaryote or eukaryote?
Is the kingdom of Fungi a prokaryote or eukaryote?
Is the kingdom of Plantae a prokaryote or eukaryote?
Is the kingdom of Animalia a prokaryote or eukaryote?
Is the kingdom of Archaea single celled, multi celled, or both?
Is the kingdom of Eubacteria single celled, multi celled, or both?
Is the kingdom of Protista single celled, multi celled, or both?
Is the kingdom of Fungi single celled, multi celled, or both?
Is the kingdom of Plantae single celled, multi celled, or both?
Is the kingdom of Animalia single celled, multi celled, or both?
What 4 kinds of genetic material can a virus have?
Double stranded DNA, single stranded DNA, double stranded RNA, and single stranded RNA
What is injected into a person when they receive a vaccine?
A dead or weakened form of the virus
What type of virus invades a bacterium?
What is the viral capsid made of?
Where must a virus reproduce?
Can HIV invade any cell in its host's body?
In which cycle does a virus invades a host cell, takes over cellular machinery, copy itself many times and the makes the copies burst out to invade other cells?
How long does the human immune system take to respond to a virus it has never seen before?
How long does the human immune system take to respond to a virus that it has seen before?
Do antibiotics work for viral infections?
Reproduction by mitosis is a process called what?
Bacteria picking up foreign DNA from its environment is called what?
A virus carries DNA from one bacterium to another during infection is called what?
An organism that obtains energy from inorganic molecules is called a what?
What is the function of a flagellum?
What is the function of a saprobe?
To break down dead organisms
What category of organism lives in a long-term relationship on a host and harms the host in the process?
What happens in a symbiotic, also called mutualistic, relationship?
Both organisms benefit
No nucleus, no organelles, smaller, and DNA ring in the center are characteristics unique to what?
What environmental feature would be ideal for prokaryotes that can only reproduce by binary fission?
What is the most ancient domain of life?
In what types of environments are Archae typically found?
Where does a halophile live?
In high salt
Where does a thermoacidophile live?
In heat and acid
What Domain contains the kind of bacteria that causes diseases?
What polysaccharide is found in bacterial cell walls?
What color would a gram negative bacteria look?
Brown or red
What color would a gram positive bacteria look?
In what kind of environment are protists typically found?
What protista diseases can be contracted from drinking untreated water?
Amoebic dysentery and giardosis
What protist causes malaria?
Most protists are (single or multi celled)?
What are two really big multicellular protists?
Kelp and algae
An amoeba ingests other organisms. Is it plant-like, animal-like or fungi-like?
Protists that are plant-like get energy via what?
What are three novel features that evolved in the kingdom protista?
Eukaryotic cells, flagella, ocelli, sexual reproduction, and multi celled
What is another name for an eyespot?
What can an eye spot detect?
What causes a red tide?
What is the process where a piece of fungi comes off to create a new organism?
What eats dead tissue?
What feeds by secreting digestive enzymes into its food to break down the food and absorb the nutrients?
What are the only unicellular fungi?
Are fungi autotrophs or heterotrophs?
The fungal cell wall contains the polysaccharide what?
The long, slender filaments that make up the fungal body are called what?
A mat of hyphae is called a what?
Cheese flavors, beer, alcohol, antibiotics, and bread are products made by using what?
Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts are examples of what?
Horsetails, lycophytes, and ferns are examples of what?
Pine trees, evergreens, conifers, and ginkgoes are examples of what?
Flowering plants are examples of what?
What does the term gymnosperms mean?
What does the term angiosperm mean?
Where are the seeds of Gymnosperms?
Where are the seeds of Angiosperms?
What part of the flower becomes a fruit?
Protecting and nourishing the embryo is the job of what?
Protecting the sperm to prevent desiccation and helping the sperm travel in plants is the job of what?
Growth in response to light is called what?
Growth in response to gravity is called what?
Growth in response to touch is called what?
What is responsible for vertical growth in plants?
Gas exchange is the function of a what in plants?
What are plant cell walls made of?
Which group of plants use animals to aid in pollination and dispersal of embryos?
Which group of plants must live near water?
Which kind of root grows deep into the ground?
Which kind of root has net-like extensions?
Which kind of plants are the most abundant on earth?
Xylem transports water and what from roots to shoots?
Minerals and nutrients
What transports water, minerals, and nutrients from roots to shoots?
Xylem transports water, minerals, and nutrients from which two places?
Roots to shoots
Phloem transports what from shoots to roots?
What transports sugars from shoots to roots?
Phloem transports sugars from which two places?
Shoots to roots
What kind of stem does an onion have?
What kind of stem does a potato have?
A water proof layer that prevents water loss from the leaf by transpiration is called what?
What does the word desiccation mean?
To dry out
What does the word terrestrial mean?
What are hair-like extensions on roots called?
What are the functions of root hairs?
To increase surface area and absorb water and minerals
Our skin is roughly equivalent to a plant's what tissue?
Plants that have no wood are called what kind of plants?
In woody plants, the dermal tissue is called what?
Cork or bark
Is the dermal tissue alive or dead in a woody plant?
Xylem is made of which two kind of cells?
Vessel elements and tracheids
Are the cells that make up xylem alive or dead?
The bottom of tracheid cells are what to allow the passage of water?
The bottom of which cells are perforated to allow for the passage of water?
What are the holes that allow water to pass horizontally from tracheids to vessel elements?
Sieve tube members carry what?
Sieve tube members lack what?
Protecting the growing root tip is the job of what?
What kind of root grows above ground and helps supports tall or long stems?
Stems that run horizontally on top of the ground are called what?
Stems that run horizontally underground are called what?
Roots that extend from the stem to the ground to support a tall shoot are are called what?
Are rhizomes stems or roots?
The process of the embryo growing out of the seed is called what?
Another name for the embryonic root is what?
What is a region of continuous growth?
What is the name of the meristem that contributes to primary growth?
What kind of symmetry does a sponge have?
What kind of symmetry does a starfish have?
What kind of symmetry does a human have?
Do animal cells have cell walls?
Are animal cells diploid of haploid?
What classes of animals are homeotherms?
Mammalia and aves
Do homeotherms or ectotherms have higher metabolisms?
Are homeotherms or ectotherms more active in cold weather?
How would an ectotherm get warm?
By basking in the sun
In advanced chordates, what does the nerve cord become?
Spinal cord and brain
What becomes parts of the throat, jaw, and ear in terrestrial animals?
What happens to the pharyngeal clefts in most marine animals?
They evolve into gills
Which kind of marine animals have jaws and can eat larger food?
Animals that have a head with well developed sensory organs and a large brain are called what?
What mode of nutrition is common to all animals?
Animals were enabled to eat a lager variety of food when what what event happened?
A variety of teeth evolved
What phylum contains animals that sting and have radial symmetry?
What is a shark skeleton composed of?
Frogs, salamanders, skinks, newts, and salamander toads are classified as what?
Snakes, turtles, and alligators are classified as what?
The adult animal in this phylum is sessile and asymmetric. What is the phylum and the animal?
Porifera and sponge
What are four features that make birds well adapted to flight?
Wings, feathers, hollow bones, light beak, one ovary, brain, and well developed breathing
Frogs, toads, caterpillars, butterflies, and meal worms are animals that all undergo complete what?
What characteristic puts a member of Phylum Chordata into Subphylum Vertebrata?
Which mollusk is most is cephalized - a clam or an octopus?
The appearance of jaws allowed gills to what?
Specialize for breathing
What are four reasons amphibians must remain moist and live in a moist environment?
Inefficient lungs, must reproduce in water, young tadpole breathes through gills, eggs have no shell
What is the oldest fossilized bird?
What are the bird like features of Archeoptryx?
Wings, feathers, and a beak
What are the reptile like features of Archeoptryx?
Teeth, clawed digits, and a long reptilian tail
Which two factors very important for predicting how much time and energy an animal will invest raising its young?
Number of offspring and social behavior
Joint evolution of the brain and senses is called what?
Which class are birds classified in?
Insects with an exoskeleton must what in order to grow?
Would you expect an organism with blubber to be endothermic or exothermic?
What is the main defining feature of Phylum Arthropoda?
You find a 4-legged vertebrate with skin, but no hair, living under a damp rock in the forest. What class is the creature in?
What two features of a land animal does a lungfish have?
Lungs and appendages to walk on the bottom
Mammals that lay eggs are called what?
Young animals that climb into a pouch to mature are called what?
Animals that have placenta to feed the baby are called what?