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CompTIA ITF+ CHAPTER 5-9 PART II FC0-U61
SETTING UP AND USING COMPUTERS
Terms in this set (393)
What does OS stand for?
What is an Operating System (OS)?
An operating system is the most important software that runs on a computer. It manages the computer's memory, processes, and all of it's software and hardware. it also allows you to communicate with the computer without knowing how to speak the computer's language. without an operating system, a computer is useless.
What are the 5 functions of an Operating System?
* provide an interface between user and machine.
* enable coordination of hardware components.
* provide an environment for software to function.
* Monitor system health and functionality.
* display structure/ directories for data management.
What are 2 types of interface between user and machine?
GRAPHIC USER INTERFACE (GUI)
COMMAND LINE INTERFACE (CLI)
What does a GUI do?
A GUI enables you to click on-screen elements to interact with the OS.
What does a CLI do?
Allows you to type commands at the CLI to tell the OS what to do.
What are device drivers?
Small programs stored on the hard drive that tell the computer how to communicate with a specific hardware device such as a printer, network card, or scanner. These drivers are installed on the hard drive when the OS is first installed, or when new hardware is added to the system. A device driver is written to work for a specific OS.
How does the OS talk to and manage all the hardware devices that speak different languages for coordination of hardware components?
Through translation files called DEVICE DRIVERS.
In order for software to function such as, Windows and macOS, OS provide an environment to allow applications to run within a consistent, graphical desktop environment called what?
GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI)
What do OS come with that helps keep the system running in good condition by checking storage drives for errors or monitoring system activity for malware?
An OS displays structure/ directories for data management to allow you to do what?
SO you can view file and folder listings and issue commands to act on these files and folders such as move, copy, rename, delete, and so on.
OS differ in what 3 primary characteristics?
What are the different type of OS depending on their use?
OS for laptops and desktops
OS for servers
OS for mobile devices
What are the 3 basic ways to acquire an OS?
What is an open source OS?
Anyone can download and modify the software.
What is a free OS?
free to use but unable to modify the software. A company may still own the rights to the software but allows it to be used for free.
What is a commercial OS?
privately owned by companies that charge money for the software.
What is an example of an open source OS?
What is public domain software?
a step beyond open source. Not only is it free and modifiable, but the owner has renounced ownership.
What is an example of free OS?
GOOGLE CHROME OS
What is an example of commercial OS?
What does EULA stand for?
END-USER LICENSE AGREEMENT (EULA)
What does EULA do?
When you pay for the right to use computers that run commercial OS , EULA must be acknowledged by the OS installer providing the user the right to use the software.
What does BYOL stand for?
BRING YOUR OWN LICENSE (BYOL)
What do public cloud providers generally allow you to reuse when you run VM in the cloud?
an existing OS license to save money.
What do programmers write?
Can an application run on any OS?
NO. They are generally written for specific OS making them non-compatible.
Can a 32-bit CPU run a 64-bit OS software?
NO. 64-bit software is not compatible with a 32-bit CPU?
Can a 64-bit CPU run a 32-bit OS software?
YES. 64-bit CPU is backward compatible to 32-bit or a 64-bit software.
Does every desktop have a CLI and a GUI?
The Microsoft Windows Interface supports 4 versions of the Windows Interface for desktop PC's, What are they?
What is the background of the GUI called?
IN Windows 7, an open application on the desktop where the blurred edges of the application show transparency are called what?
AERO or AERO GLASS
On Windows 7, clicking on the START button does what?
gives access to applications, tools, files, and folders.
On Windows 7, PINNED PROGRAMS does what?
Enables you to launch a program with a single left click of the mouse.
On Windows 7, TASKBAR does what?
Shows running programs
On Windows 7, NOTIFICATION AREA does what?
Shows programs running in the background.
What other name is there for NOTIFICATION AREA?
In Windows 7, a single left click to a mouse does what?
Selects the item or icon.
In Windows 7, a double left click to a mouse does what?
Opens the item or icon.
In Windows 7, a single right click to a mouse does what?
Opens a context menu for more options.
In Windows 8, What big feature did Windows get rid of that was disliked by consumers?
They got rid of the Start Menu.
The start Menu or button was replaced with what?
START SCREEN that covered most of the desktop with tiles.
What are TILES?
Shortcuts to APPS.
What is an APP?
A shortened word for Application referring to programs.
What is the code name for Windows 8?
Metro UI, great for touch enabled devices. Later renamed to Modern UI due to legal concerns.
In Windows 8.1, What feature returned?
Windows 8.1 started supporting a a new type of application that resembled the type used on mobile operating systems like iOS and Android. What was it called?
MODERN APPS or METRO APPS
What OS replaced Windows 8.1?
Windows 10 was a compromise between what 2 OS?
On Windows 10, When you press the WINDOWS LOGO KEY.....
you get the Start menu with useful tools and your most used apps on the left and pinned apps on the right.
On Windows 10, When you click on ALL APPS`........`
It opens a list of all installed apps.
What is macOS toolbar called?
In macOS, inside the DOCk are what?
What does DE stand for?
The only way to add an app on Chrome OS is
through the Google web store.
Google Chrome OS usually have small storage because it relies on
In Windows, what's it called to manage files?
In macOS, what's it called to manage files?
In Linux, what's it called to manage files?
In Google Chrome OS, what's it called to manage files?
Files or Google Drive
In Windows, what's the feature to browse Programs to Run?
In macOS, what's the feature to browse Programs to Run?
In Linux, what's the feature to browse Programs to Run?
In Google Chrome OS, what's the feature to browse Programs to Run?
In Windows, what's the feature to change system settings?
Control Panel or Settings
In macOS, what's the feature to change system settings?
In Linux, what's the feature to change system settings?
In Google Chrome OS, what's the feature to change system settings?
In Windows, What program is used to schedule programs?
Windows Task scheduler
In Linux, What program is used to schedule programs?
a CRON job runs scheduled tasks.
In a GUI OS environment, how do you run a program?
* Double click ( or sometimes single click) an icon for that program.
* Open a menu and select the program from the menu such as the Windows start menu.
* Open a file management interface and double click a data file that is associated with a certain application.
* Press a key combination assigned to that program.
* In a touchscreen environment, tap an icon for that program.
What is a shortcut?
A pointer that refers to a file.
In Windows, What are programs that run in the OS background called?
In Linux, What are programs that run in the OS background called?
SERVICES OR DOMAINS
What does it mean by the program that runs in the OS background?
It is not directly started by the user but by the OS.
What's an example of a program that runs in the OS background?
a server hosting a website.
How do you optimize OS performance and security?
By removing unnecessary services, it speeds upmachine because fewer programs are running together and reduces the attack surface.
What is PLUG and PLAY?
enables hardware to report its specifications to the OS and enables the OS to assign resources to the device and install drivers if available.
What are HOTKEYS?
they enable you to issue commands to the OS by pressing key combinations on the keyboard.
What else are HOTKEYS called?
KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS OR SHORTCUT KEYS.
In Windows, what hotkey action shuts down the active app?
ALT -F4 from active window
In macOS, what hotkey action shuts down the active app?
In LINUX, what hotkey action shuts down the active app?
In CHROME OS, what hotkey action shuts down the active app?
In Windows, what hotkey action cuts the selected item?
In macOS, what hotkey action cuts the selected item?
In LINUX, what hotkey action cuts the selected item?
In CHROME OS, what hotkey action cuts the selected item?
In Windows, what hotkey action copies the selected item?
In macOS, what hotkey action copies the selected item?
In LINUX, what hotkey action copies the selected item?
In CHROME OS, what hotkey action copies the selected item?
In Windows, what hotkey action pastes the selected item?
In macOS, what hotkey action pastes the selected item?
In LINUX, what hotkey action pastes the selected item?
In CHROME OS, what hotkey action pastes the selected item?
In Windows, what hotkey action switches between open applications?
In macOS, what hotkey action switches between open applications?
COMMAND-TAB or SHIFT COMMAND-TILDE (~)
In LINUX, what hotkey action switches between open applications?
In CHROME OS, what hotkey action switches between open applications?
In Windows, what hotkey action opens HELP?
In macOS, what hotkey action opens HELP?
In LINUX, what hotkey action opens HELP?
In CHROME OS, what hotkey action opens HELP?
When preparing a work area for a PC, what environmental condition should you look at first?
Room temperature and level of dust.
When preparing a work area for a PC, what environmental condition should you look at second?
When preparing a work area for a PC, what environmental condition should you look at third?
When preparing a work area for a PC, what environmental condition should you look at fourth?
When preparing a work area for a PC, what environmental condition should you look at last?
What room conditions do you need to analyze and take into consideration?
How can you ensure your PC lasts longer than they otherwise would?
HVAC- Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning
What is the ideal room temperature for PC's?
50- 75 Fahrenheit
What is humidity?
The amount of water vapor in the air
What is the ideal humidity level for a PC?
High humidity reduces what?
Electrostatic discharge ( Static Electricity)
an enemy to computer chips.
When it comes to humidity, What are the computer chips enemy?
High humidity causes what?
What are examples of small airborne particles?
When choosing location of your PC, avoid what?
using an extension cord.
What is ergonomics?
the study of people's efficiency in their working environment by studying how humans and equipment interact.
How far should a display be from the user's eye?
16 to 24 inches
What is Electrostatic Discharge?
ESD- when objects with different electrical charges come close enough for the excess charge to jump quickly to equalize the charge between them.
A low charge object in an ESD experiences this as a what?
HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC CHARGE
What does ESD stand for?
What is Voltage?
a measurement (in volts) of the strength of the electrical current.
What is Amperage (amps)?
a measurement of the rate at which the current flows.
What does EMI stand for?
What is EMI?
Occurs when a cable runs too close to something that generates a strong electromagnetic field.
What is the most common source of EMI?
Fluorescent Lights. Dont run cables near fluourescent lights and if needed, use EMI-resistant cables.
In the US, standard AC power is between what numbers of volts?
What is standard AC voltage in the US often written as?
What does VAC stand for?
VOLTS of ALTERNATING CURRENT
What voltage does the majority of the world use?
Because voltage standards differ around the world power supplies have what?
What is a SURGE SUPPRESSOR?
Can absorb excess power during a surge or spike to prevent it from reaching the plugged devices.
Surge Suppression capacity is measured in what?
The higher the joule rating the greater the protection.
What is a power sag?
a lack of voltage.
What is a power conditioner?
A feature of certain surge protectors that store extra voltage in a capacitor and releases when a low voltage to smooth out power sags.
What is the grouped name for the conditions of outages, surges, spikes, and sags?
What does UPS stand for?
UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
What does a UPS do?
It is a surge suppressor, power conditioner and a battery backup all in one to avoid power limitations from happening.
How does a UPS connect to the PC?
What does USB stand for?
UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS
What does DVI stand for?
DIGITAL VISUAL INTERFACE
What does HDMI stand for?
HIGH-DEFINITION MULTIMEDIA INTERFACE
What does VGA stand for?
VIDEO GRAPHICS ARRAY
What 2 physical connections are found on the Mac?
When you first start up a computer, what configurations take place?
What configurations take place under Localization?
DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME
What configurations take place under Screen Resolution?
Automatically detects monitor and display adaptor
What configurations take place under Audio Settings?
Autodetected and set up in the OS.
What configurations take place under Internet Connectivity?
Setup program looks for internet connection and offers to connect to what it finds. If not found will ask you to skip or setup connection.
What configurations take place under User Account?
Asks you to create at least one user account that will have full admin permissions.
What other steps might you take to set up your PC?
Installing Security Software
Any additional software
What software is enabled by default by windows that protects from basic anti-virus and anti-malware protection?
What are the steps to run and install Windows Updates in Windows 7/ 8/ 8.1?
OPEN THE CONTROL PANEL
CLICK SYSTEM AND SECURITY
Under Windows update heading, CLICK CHECK FOR UPDATES
What are the steps to run and install Windows Updates in Windows 10?
CLICK UPDATE AND SECURITY
under WINDOWS UPDATE, click CHECK FOR UPDATES
How do you get OS Mac updates?
via the App store.
In Mac, What are the steps to run and install Updates?
OPEN THE APP STORE
click UPDATES (if any updates are showing)
What does OCR stand for?
OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION
What does OCR do?
An application that converts images of scanned text to text you can edit in a word processing program.
What is bloatware?
Applications most people don't need or want preinstalled because their developers paid the PC manufacturer such as trial versions of software.
How do you remove an application in WIndows?
run the PROGRAM AND FEATURES applet
Select the Application you want to remove
and click uninstall.
How do you remove an application in MacOS?
choose APPLICATION from pane on the left.
right-click an APPLICATION to remove.
choose MOVE to trash.
( possible a password confirmation follows)
What is Setup.exe?
The Setup File to a program when installing software. it may also appear as Install, RunMe, or something as such.
What does .exe stand for or mean?
EXECUTABLE ( in other words, this type of extension is a program)
What is an extension?
identifies file types. such as .exe is short for "executable" in Setup.exe
What are the 3 features that distinguish a mobile device from PC's?
What are the 4 size formats of mobile devices?
What is a smartphone?
the combination of a mobile phone and a small handheld computer.
What is a tablet?
a slate-style touchscreen device which may or may not have cell phone capabilities.
What is a phablet?
a tablet with phone capabilities.
What are other types of wearable mobile devices?
What is a mobile media player?
a device that plays music or videos but does nothing else.
What are major OS for mobile devices?
How much of the market does ANDROID share?
How much of the market does iOS share?
How much of the market does WINDOWS share?
Because Android runs on so many brands of hardware, not all have what ?
a HOME button
Like Linux, which mobile device OS is open source?
What are gestures?
various actions using one finger or more when using a touchscreen.
What is the gesture-based interaction that allows you to briefly touch the surface with a fingertip?
What is the gesture-based interaction that allows you to rapidly touch the surface twice with a fingertip?
What is the gesture-based interaction that allows you to touch the screen and then drag your finger across it in a certain direction?
What is the gesture-based interaction that allows you to touch the surface with two fingers spread apart and then pinch them closer together to zoom out?
What is the gesture-based interaction that allows you to touch the surface with two fingers as you would to zoom out but then rotate them on the screen?
What are kinetics?
electronic sensors that track the device's position and movement in 3D space.
What are the 3 types of sensors involved in mobile device kinetics?
What is accelerometer?
Determines how fast the device is moving thru space like a speedometer does for a vehicle.
What is a magnetometer?
Works like a compass to detect the device's orientation relative to the earth's magnetic north.
What is Gyroscope?
Measures the rotational velocity and position along 3 axes ( in 3D space)
What is another name for Gyroscope?
attitude sensor or rotation sensor.
With Android, in order to find your phone, what must the device need to have?
WIFI or MOBILE DATA
ACTIVE SIM CARD
The Android Device Manager also allows you to do what when your phone is lost?
ERASE THE DEVICE ( not retainable)
What is cellular?
Sometimes referred to as 3G, 4G, or LTE. The wireless service from a cellular phone network via cell phone towers.
What is Bluetooth?
a wireless PAN technology that transmits signals over short distances among cell phones, computers, and other devices.
What's the affective distance of Class 2 Bluetooth?
10 Meters or 33 Feet
What is WiFi?
A friendlier name for the IEEE 802.11 standard of wireless networking.
What does LTE stand for?
LONG TERM EVOLUTION
What does PAN stand for?
PERSONAL AREA NETWORK
What does WiFi stand for?
What does IEEE stand for?
INSTITUTE of ELECTRICAL and ELECTRONICS ENGINEER
What does NFC Stand for?
NEAR FIELD COMMUNICATION
What does NFC do?
a specialized, low power, short-range wireless communication method built into some android devices.
What is Android Beam App?
Used to share certain kinds of files, such as photos, with other people nearby using NFC technology. iPhone has similar hardware but only used to used for ApplePay.
What does WAP stand for?
Wi-Fi Access Point
What does SSID stand for?
SERVICE SET ID
What does POP3 stand for?
POST OFFICE PROTOCOL 3
What does IMAP stand for?
INTERNET MAIL ACCESS PROTOCOL
What does SMTP stand for?
SIMPLE MAIL TRANSFER PROTOCOL
What are 3 protocols for sending and receiving email?
which 2 protocols receive email?
Which protocol sends email?
In Window's, what is the hard drives primary volume?
Each volume can store files commonly organized in to what?
Folders are also called what?
A PATH or FILE PATH does what?
describes the location of a particular file on a volume by starting with the Volume letter followed by the named folder and the next folder until you arrive to the filename you need.
What is ROOT DIRECTORY?
It is the top level that is not inside any other Folder.
For example: C:\\ would be the ROOT DIRECTORY
What is Metadata?
A files properties. Metadata means data about data.
What are BASIC FILE ATTRIBUTES (flags)?
They are yes/ no values for a file.
How many basic file attributes are there?
What are the 4 basic file attributes?
What is the Read-only attribute?
It marks a file as unchangeable. You can read the file, but if you modify it, it has to be saved as a different name.
What is the System attribute?
A file marked SYSTEM hidden by default and protected from accidental deletion.
What is the Hidden attribute?
A HIDDEN file acts like its name would suggest, hiding from the default view in File Explorer.
What is the Archive attribute?
A file with the ARCHIVE attribute active indicates the file has changed since the last system backup.
What does NTFS stand for?
NEW TECHNOLOGY FILE SYSTEM
What is NTFS?
A file system in Windows systems most hard drives.
What does HFS stand for?
HIERARCHICAL FILE SYSTEM
what is HFS?
Apples file system
What is EXT4 stand for?
EXTENDED FILE SYSTEM version 4
What is EXT4?
Linux file system
What other attributes does NTFS offer?
What does FAT32 stand for?
FILE ALLOCATION TABLE 32 (bits)
What is FAT32?
An older Windows File System that does not offer advanced attributes.
What is INDEXED when related to Advanced File Attributes?
Allowing a file's content to be indexed make searches go faster.
What is EFS?
ENCRYPTING FILE SYSTEM
What is JOURNALING when related to Advanced File Attributes?
Uses a transaction log for write activity to the file system. When the OS receives a notification to write something to the disk, the OS opens a new journal transaction of what must be written before the data is actually written to the disk. In the event of data corruption, due to power outages, misbehaving software, and so on, the transaction journal can repay those entries that did not complete which results in no data loss.
What is COMPRESSED when related to Advanced File Attributes?
NTFS enables file compression for less space on the volume. However, the file takes slightly longer to open and save.
What is chattr?
A LINUX command that encrypts files.
What does chattr stand for?
Change Attribute for Linux
What is ENCRYPTED when related to Advanced File Attributes?
An encryption that protects files from other users on the same local computer.
Some OS have maximum file systems and individual file size limitations, What is the maximum size of a of an NTFS volume?
16 exabytes (EB) very rarely common.
What does 1 Exabyte (EB) equal to?
1024 petabytes (PB)
When it comes to keywords, certain kinds of files can have what assigned to them?
When speaking about keywords, Details can include what?
How many main classes of back up applications are there?
What are the three main classes of back up applications?
1. makes an image of the entire hard drive to another hard drive. ( Imaging Software)
2. backs up files and folders that are specified.
3. Offered by WIndows 8 and newer called File History that uses an additional storage drive to back up personal computer.
What does NAS stand for?
NETWORK ATTACHED STORAGE
ONLINE WORKSPACE (Collaboration Software)
Provide an online environment for running cloud based services and applications.
Office Online ( applications)
DOCUMENT STORAGE/ SHARING (Collaboration Software)
Provide private or shareable file storage via cloud-based services
SCREENSHARING SOFTWARE (Collaboration Software)
Enable a remote user to see and take control of another user's screen while the original user and others watch.
Windows Remote Assistance ( as well as video conference software)
VIDEO CONFERENCE SOFTWARE (Collaboration Software)
Place and receive a=calls among two or more locations. May also include screen, file, and application sharing.
CITRIX go to meeting
INSTANT MESSAGE SOFTWARE (Collaboration Software)
Enable two or more people to communicate in real time using text, may also include video conference capability
AOL Instant messenger
E-MAIL SOFTWARE (Collaboration Software)
Sends and receives email messages.
Microsoft Outlook (WIndows, macOS)
Mail ( Windows)
Evolution ( Linux)
Gmail ( Chrome OS)
DATABASE (Business Software)
Stores and manage structured data, such as lists of contacts, products, or transactions.
Microsoft Access ( Windows)
Microsoft SQL Server
Filemaker ( macOS, Windows)
MySQL Oracle Database
FINANCIAL (Business Software)
Track and manage financial information; many different types exist, from personal finance applications to software that runs large accounting departments.
PROJECT MANAGER (Business Software)
Create and track project details such as milestones, schedules, deadlines, and budgets. Team members can update their progress for specific project tasks.
BUSINESS-SPECIFIC (Business Software)
Also called Line-Of-Business (LoB) apps, these can be purchased or custom developed. Specific industries such as medical and manufacturing use software specifically tailored for those types of business.
AdvancedMD ( Patient Health Records)
WorkWIse ERP (manufacturing)
WORD PROCESSING (PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE)
Create business and personal documents such as letters, reports, memos, and maunscripts.
MICROSOFT WORD ( Windows, MacOS)
LIBREOFFICE WRITER (Linux)
GOOGLE DOCS ( Chrome OS)
SPREADSHEET SOFTWARE (PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE)
Create worksheets that performs calculations on financial and statistical data.
MICROSOFT WORD ( Windows, MacOS)
LIBREOFFICE CALC (Linux)
GOOGLE SHEETS ( Chrome OS)
PDF VIEWERS/ CREATORS (PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE)
View and create formatted pages for printing or distribution on any platform.
ADOBE ACROBAT ( reads and creates)
ADOBE READER ( only reads)
PRESENTATION SOFTWARE (PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE)
Create graphical slides to support presentation.
MICROSOFT WORD ( Windows, MacOS)
LIBREOFFICE IMPRESS (Linux)
GOOGLE SLIDES ( Chrome OS)
DESKTOP PUBLISHING SOFTWARE (PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE)
Combine text and graphics into page layout such as magazine pages and brochures.
Microsoft Publisher (Windows)
Quark Xpress (macOS, WIndows)
PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER (PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE)
Manage contacts, calendars, tasks, notes, reminders: may also send, receive , and manage emails.
Microsoft Outlook (WIndows)
Evolution ( Linux)
REMOTE DESKTOP SOFTWARE (PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE)
Access the desktop of one computer from another.
Windows Remote Desktop
VISUAL DIAGRAMMING SOFTWARE (PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE)
Create blueprints and 3d renderingsof buildings and products, create and edit drawings and other art work, edit photos.
WEB BROWSER (PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE)
Connect to web services on local networks as well as the internet, used for research and entertainment as well as other uses of web-based applications such a G-Suite or Microsoft Office 365.
Microsoft Internet Explorer
ANTIMALWARE (UTILITY SOFTWARE)
Scan a system for malicious software(malware) including viruses, worms, and exploits.
Norton Internet Security
Symantec Endpoint Protection
SOFTWARE FIREWALLS (UTILITY SOFTWARE)
Prevent hackers from gaining access to a computer remotely via network or internet.
DIAGNOSTIC/ MAINTENANCE SOFTWARE (UTILITY SOFTWARE)
Checks hard disks for errors and optimizes their performance.
Check Disk/ Error Checking
Optimize Drives ( Windows)
COPMRESSION SOFTWARE (UTILITY SOFTWARE)
Combine and compress multiple files into a single archive file that can be more easily distributed.
Compression features built into some OS's
What is productivity software?
programs designed t help yo do productive tasks associated with making a living.
What is collaboration software?
helps people communicate and work with one another and computers share information.
What is business software?
This software refers to applications that are related to business-specific process and the tracking of projects.
What is Utility Software?
has limited functionality and is used to maintain computer systems and serves no purpose for humans rather more for the PC.
What is specialized software?
applications designed to appeal to a specific segment of the population.
SCIENTIFIC (Specialized Software)
One type provides reference information and tools for scientific professionals; another type manages the process of doing scientific research.
GAMING (Specialized Software)
Entertain ( and potentially educate) the user; may run on separate PC's independently or on a network.
World of Warcraft
Entertainment (Specialized Software) Non-games
Entertain a specific audience, such as playing music or movies or providing digital copies of magazines to read.
Windows Media Player
What are single-tiered applications sometimes called?
What do single-tiered applications contain traditionally?
all of the application software logic running on a single computer.
What does UI stand for?
What is an N-tier model provide?
Developers can make code changes to one-tier without affecting others.
Updates can be applied by tier
Load balancing tiers to maximize performance
IT's can back up tiers separately.
The word program refers to what?
Software that is used to maintain the computer.
The word applications refers to what?
means a program that is not involved in running or maintaining the computer itself.
What does OEM stand for?
Original Equipment Manufacturer
What is an ISO file?
Complete copy (or image) of a storage media device, typically used for optical discs.
What is a compressed archive file?
A single file that, much like a folder, can contain and compress many files.
What does UAC stand for?
User Account Control
What is the UAC prompt?
your systems way of confirming you (and not some malware) initiated the request.
What is another name for web-based applications?
What does SaaS stand for?
Software as a Service
What is SaaS?
Software Services that are provided by applications for users from their companies.
What is a patch?
A file of programming code that is inserted into an existing executable program to fix a known problem, or bug.
.AIFF or .AIF
Audio Interchange File Format
PC batch file or script. Its a list of commands to be executed in sequential order.
.CLASS or .JAVA
Comma separated, variable length file (Open in Excel)
dbase II, III, IV data
Data Interchange format
.DOC or .DOCX
Microsoft Word for Windows/Word97
.EXE or .COM
A Windows Application.
An .EXE might have multiple helper files that work with it
a .COM file is normally a stand alone application.
Filemaker Pro databases (the numbers following represent the version #)
Graphics Interchange Format
.HTM or .HTML
Web page source text
.JPG or JPEG
Joint Photographic Experts Group graphic
Web page imagemap
MS Access database
.MID or .MIDI
MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface sound
.MOV or .QT
.MTB or .MTW
Acrobat -Portable document format
PageMaker (the numbers following represent the version #) P=publication, T=template
Portable Network Graphics
.PPT or .PPTX
Rich Text Format
Stuffit Compressed Archive
UNIX TAR Compressed Archive
ASCII text (Mac text does not contain line feeds--use DOS Washer Utility to fix)
Lotus 1-2-3 (the numbers following represent the version #)
.WPD or .WP5
WordPerfect (the numbers following represent the version #)
.XLS or .XLSX
PC Zip Compressed Archive comma separated values
What is a platform?
The hardware in which an OS runs such as mobile, workstation, and web-based.
What are executables?
Files that run programs.
Where can you find an executable?
It can be a part of
the Operating System
an installation package
A Mac application bundle. It looks like an application but really the bundle is a folder containing the application files.
An installer package file format used in Windows.
7-ZIP or 7z ( COMPRESSION FORMAT )
the default format for the file compression utility 7-Zip archiver.
7z is an updated version of the file format, offering better compression and security.
DMG ( COMPRESSION FORMAT )
The format of a MacOS disc image; similar to the ISO but for MAC.
GZIP ( COMPRESSION FORMAT )
The default format for the gzip utility.
The G stands for GNU.
GNU is a Linux variant.
ISO ( COMPRESSION FORMAT )
The format of a file that represents an optical disc image; use a DVD burning application to burn ISO file to removable media such as a blank cd, DVD, or USB flash drive.
JAR ( COMPRESSION FORMAT )
A format for Java classes and data. You may encounter this when you work with Java.
RAR ( COMPRESSION FORMAT )
The default format of the WinRAR file archive program.
TAR ( COMPRESSION FORMAT )
The Linux and Unix standard archive format. An acronym that stands for Tape Archive.
ZIP ( COMPRESSION FORMAT )
A popular compression format for Windows PC's. Originally developed for a command line application called PKZIP, now mostly associated with WinZIP.
What are media clips?
Files containing audio and/or video.
What does CODEC stand for?
What is LOSSLESS COMPRESSION?
creates a file that retains the quality of the original file.
What is LOSSY COMPRESSION?
deletes some of the data from the file to make the final file size smaller.
What does DRM stand for and what does it do?
Digital Rights Management.
A kind of copy protection that prevents copyrighted clips from being freely shared.
What does MP in MP3 or MP4 stand for?
What does MPEG stand for
Moving Picture Experts Group
What are IMAGE FORMATS?
still images ( photos)
How many kinds of image formats are there?
What are the 2 kinds of image formats?
What is a Raster Format?
used for photos and digital paintings. It contains color information for each individual dot (pixel) in the entire image. Also called a Bitmap.
Tend to be larger even when compression is applied.
Drawback is the image loses quality when resized. Example
Like Microsoft Paint and Adobe photoshop
What is a Vector image?
Used for line drawings.
Uses math formulas to describe each line and curve in the image.
Not photorealistic, but take up less space and maintain quality when resized.
Great for technical drawings and flow charts.
Microsoft Office Applications
(AUDIO AND VIDEO FORMAT)
ADVANCED AUDIO CODING
Designed to replace MP3
Better sound quality
(AUDIO AND VIDEO FORMAT)
FREE LOSSLESS AUDIO CODEC
Similar to MP3, but the lossless compression yields a little higher quality.
(AUDIO AND VIDEO FORMAT)
Used for music downloads from iTunes that have no copy protection on them. M4A is a container file, and the content inside the container is usually coded AAC.
(AUDIO AND VIDEO FORMAT)
MOVING PICTURE EXPERTS GROUP LAYER 3 AUDIO
A common general format for music files. It is popular because
it uses high level of lossy compression.
it lacks copy protection
supported by many music player applications.
(AUDIO AND VIDEO FORMAT)
The raw data inside is usually uncompressed CD-quality sound.
Files are large so usually not for long clips.
Default container for Sound Recorder application in Windows.
(AUDIO AND VIDEO FORMAT)
FORMAT: MID/ MIDI
MUSICAL INSTRUMENT DIGITAL INTERFACE
A text file that takes advantage of the sound-processing hardware to enable the computing device to produce sound.
A MIDI file is as a piece of electronic sheet music with the instruments built into your sound card.
(AUDIO AND VIDEO FORMAT)
AUDIO VIDEO INTERLEAVE
A Microsoft-created container format for audio and video.
Common for short homemade videos.
(AUDIO AND VIDEO FORMAT)
A container file format designed to distribute video online using Adobe Flash Player as the playback application, usually within a web page.
(AUDIO AND VIDEO FORMAT)
MOVING PICTURE EXPERTS GROUP Layer 4
This format uses MPEG-4 raw video data and usually AAC or MP3 audio data.
(AUDIO AND VIDEO FORMAT)
FORMAT: MPG/ MPEG
MOVING PICTURE EXPERTS GROUP
This format is a container that can hold either MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 raw video data, plus accompanying audio data. It is an older format but still in use.
(AUDIO AND VIDEO FORMAT)
WINDOWS MEDIA VIDEO
Used in some Microsoft programs that deal with user-created videos such as Windows Video Maker.
BITMAP (Image Format)
Short for Bitmap
One of the oldest Raster formats used in personal computing.
FORMAT: GIF (Image Format)
GRAPHIC FILE INTERCHANGE
An uncompressed format.
Supports only 256 colors so not a great choice for photos.
Popular for web page ads.
FORMAT: JPG/ JPEG (Image Format)
JOINT PHOTOGRAPHIC EXPERTS GROUP
A lossy image compression
Sacrifices some image quality but has a small file size.
Used in the web on-screen graphics where its not noticeable the reduced image quality.
FORMAT: PNG (Image Format)
PORTABLE NETWORK GRAPHIC
The successor to GIF.
uses lossless compression.
Supports 16.7 million colors
popular formats used on web pages and game graphics.
FORMAT: TIF/ TIFF (Image Format)
TAGGED IMAGE FILE FORMAT
uses lossless compression
Considered a high-quality format with a large file size
Some digital cameras capture images in this format.
FORMAT: TXT ( Document Format)
A plain text file with no formatting.
The default format for the Notepad app.
FORMAT: RTF ( Document Format)
RICH TEXT FORMAT
A widely accepted generic word processing format.
Nearly all word processing applications can read and write this format including text formatting options such as font, attributes, paragraph indentation, margins, bullets, and numbering, and header and footer.
FORMAT: DOC/ DOCX ( Document Format)
DOCX is the current format for Microsoft Word documents and used by other applications for compatibility with Word. DOC is an earlier version.
FORMAT: XLS/ XLSX ( Document Format)
Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application.
Uses XLSX as its default format.
FORMAT: PPT/ PPTX ( Document Format)
PPTX is default format.
FORMAT: PDF ( Document Format)
PORTABLE DOCUMENT FORMAT
Default format for Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Reader.
Designed to make document formatting consistent when distributing documents across platforms.
What is a bundle?
pre-installed applications from the Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM)
What does EULA stand for?
End User License Agreement
What is freeware?
Software you can download at no cost.
What is freemium?
subscriptions that provide some content for free but require a monthly subscription or in-application purchases to take advantage of all the site has to offer
What is commercial software?
must be purchased.
What is closed source software?
When the developers keep the source code and other information of how the software works private.
What is open source software?
Software that can be freely used, modified, and shared
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