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UNIT 3: ECOLOGY

STUDY
PLAY
Loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or new information is called:
Habituation
Every morning at the same time, John went into the den to feed his new torpical fish. After a few weeks, he noticed tha the fish swam to the top of the tank when he entered the room.

This is an example of:
Classical conditioning
Optimal foraging invovles all of the follwing EXCEPT:

A. Maximizing energy gained by the forager.
B. Minimizing energy expended by the forager.
C. Securing essential nutrients for the forager.
D. Minimizing the risk of predation on the forager.
E. Maximizing the population size ofthe forager.
E. Maximizing the population size of the forager.
Animals that help other animals of the same species are expected to:
Be genetically related to the others animals.
Which of the following is ture of innate behaviors?
Innate behaviors are expressed in most individuals in a population acorss a wide range of environmental conditions.
Which of the following levels of organizations is arranged in the correct sequence from MOST TO LEAST INCLUSIVE?
Ecosystem, community, population, individual.
Competition exclusion is most likely to occur between two:
Closely related species occupying the same niche.
If the larvae of a particular species of mosquito are to survive to the adult stage, the eggs must be laid in the trapped pool of water of the northern pitcher plant.
The mosquito larvae provide no apparent benefit or harm to the pitcher plant.

This type of interaction is an example of:
Commensalism
In the food pyramidd above which of the following organisms are herbivores?

A. Humans
B. Fish
C. Minnows
D. Copepods
E. Algae
D. Copepods
A species of malaria-carrying mospquito lives in a forest in which two species of monkeys, A and B, coexist.
Species A. is immune to malaria but species B is not.
The malaria-carrying mosquito is the chief food for a particular kind of bird in the forest.
If all of these birds are elimanted suddely by hunters, which of the following would be the immediate observalble consequence?
Increases mortality in monkey species B.
Eutrophication in lakes is frequently the direct result of...
Nutrient enrichment
Which of the following is ture about secondary consumers in an ecosystem?
They are fewer in number than are primary consumers.
In the nitogen cycle, the transformation of gaseous nitrogen into nitogren-containing compounds is performed by primarily by...
Bacteria
Which of the following best explains why there are seldom more than five trophic levels in a food chain?
Energy is lost from each trophic level.
An overlap in the niches of two different species wiill most frequently result in...
Interspecific competition
Which of the following organisms is most likely to be located at the apex( tip) of the pyramid of biomass?
Hawk
The organic and inorganic materials in all the organisms in the diagram will eventually return to the environment by the action of....
Decomposers
The banding pattern of viceroy butterflies is an exampmle of....
Mimicry
The process by which some bacteria use nitrates for their own respiration and release nitrogen into the atmosphere...
Denitrification
The relationship of a fungus and an alga in a lichen....
Symbiosis
The gain in biomass remaining after respiratory loss in plants
Net primary productivity.
Gradual transition over time from one type of biologyical community to another....
Ecological succession
Long, cold, moist winters and short summes are typical of this biome dominated by gymnosperms....
Taiga
A prolonged, relatively mild with ample precipitation alternates wit ha cold period when plants become dormant.
Deciduous forest
This biome has the greatest diversity of species.
Tropical rain forest
This biome is dominated by dwarf shrubs, grasses, and sedges that can tolerate long dark winters.
Tundra
Which of the following BEST explains why many different species can live together within an ecosystem with limited resources?
Each species occupies a different niche.
Fire has which of the following effects on a community?
It recycle dead plant materical, thus nutrients become available
In rocky coastal ecosystems where sea otters have disappeared dur to human harvesting or killer whale predation, the kelp forests also disappear and the species diversity of the community decreases drastically.
In these ecosystems, the sea otter can best be described as a ....
Keystone species