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WSU Human Development: Exam Review #1
Terms in this set (41)
Define human development as a science
How and why of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time
Know the steps of the Scientific Method
Make an observation.
Ask a question.
Form a hypothesis, or testable explanation.
Make a prediction based on the hypothesis.
Test the prediction.
What is the difference between nature and nurture?
Nature: influences of genes
What is the difference between a critical period and a sensitive period of development?
Critical period: time when certain things must occur for normal development
Sensitive period: time when a particular development occurs most easily
How is development multi-directional?
Over time, human characteristics change in every direction.
How is development multi-contextual?
Takes place within multiple contexts such as physical surroundings, family configurations, etc.
Understand the basic premise of life-span perspective, cognitive, behaviorism, psychoanalytic, humanistic, dynamic-systems theory, social learning theories and evolutionary theory
Life Span Perspective: takes into account all phases of life, human development is multi-directional, multi-contextual, multi-cultural, and plastic
Cognitive: Proposes thoughts and expectations profoundly affect actions, attitudes, beliefs, and assumptions.
Behaviorism: Learning theory, focuses on observable behavior, describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned
Psychoanalytic: Irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior
Humanistic: emphasizes the personal worth of the individual, the centrality of human values, and the creative, active nature of human beings
Dynamic- systems theory: Suggests human development is an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between body and mind and between the individual and every aspect of the environment
Social Learning: proposes that, even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people (modeling).
Evolutionary theory: individuals inherit a species-typical environment, as well as a species-typical genome
Know the five environmental systems of the ecological-systems approach and what they represent
Microsystems (elements of the person's immediate surroundings, such as family and peer group)
Exosystems(local institutions such as school and church)
Macrosystems (the larger social setting, including cultural values, economic policies, and political processes)
Chronosystem (literally, "time system")
Mesosystem, consisting of the connections among the other systems
What is social construction and difference equals deficit error?
Based on shared perceptions, not on objective reality.•Affect how people think, what they do, and what they value
Humans tend to believe that they, their nation and their culture are better than others
Difference of operant and classical conditioning
operant: learned behavior is the result of past reinforcement
classical: learned behavior is the result of the association between one stimulus and another
Correlation vs. causation
A correlation exists between two variables if one variable is more (or less) likely to occur when the other does.
Ethical standards are needed because..
Ensure that participation is voluntary, confidential, and harmless.-Ensure that participants understand the research procedures and any risks involved.-Promote research accuracy, honesty, and truthfulness.-Study and report data on many issues that are crucial for the optimal development of all people.
Culture, ethnicity, and race
Culture: a system of shared beliefs, norms, behaviors, and expectations that persist over time and prescribe social behavior and assumptions
Ethnicity: Social construction—affected by social context, not a direct outcome of biology
Race: Social construction that continues to lead to racism
variation of a gene
Genes that add something to some aspect of the phenotype
Male sex cell
An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait.
a persons genetic makeup determines genetic expression, which is what the offspring looks like
genetic makeup of an organism
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
what can happen with the 21st chromosome
there can be an additional copy of chromosome 21, resulting in three copies instead of the normal two copies
Why is folic acid important to an embryo
Folic acid helps prevent neural-tube (brain, spine or spinal cord) defects
What is a doula and what is their role
A woman who helps with the birth process, including massage during birth and help with breast-feeding.
A quick assessment of a newborn's body functioning. The baby's heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, color, and reflexes are given a score of 0, 1, or 2 twice-at one minute and five minutes after birth- and each time the total of all five scores is compared with the ideal score of 10 (which is rarely attained.)
What is the significance of genes when considering exposure to teratogens?
Any agent or condition, including viruses and drugs, resulting in birth defects or complications-The critical period is the most vulnerable period to be exposed
Evidence based on observations or experiments rather than theory or opinions.
How environmental experiences differ because of particular inherited genes
change can occur rapidly and dramatically
socioeconomic status (SES)
status in society based on level of education, income, and occupational prestige
framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older
learning many things through observation and imitation of other people
a learning process by which children learn through engaging in activities and experience alongside a parent, teacher, etc
Referring to a phenotypic character that is influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors.
the study of how environmental factors affect genes and genetic expression
SGA (Small for gestational age)
a term for a baby whose birthweight is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception
An injection in the spine that alleviates pain-May increase the chance of having a cesarean section.
the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience
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