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U.S. Gov Final
Terms in this set (78)
How do you amend the Constitution?
Amendment is proposed by ⅔ vote in the house and congress, or ⅔ of the states request one a conference. Then the Amendment needs to be ratified by ¾ of state legislatures
Which clause provides that the Constitution shall be the supreme law of the land?
Article VI (6) aka the Supremacy Clause
What is the Great Compromise?
The House of Representatives assigned a number of seats in proportion with the state's population, The Senate assigns an equal number of seats to each state regardless of population.
What is the 3/5s Compromise?
Slaves count as ⅗ of a person for the purpose of population (Slave States wanted to count them so they could have more rep in congress, other states felt it would be unfair as slaves could not vote and therefore shouldn't be counted)
When did the founding fathers believe that people have the right to rebel against the government?
When the government violates the rights of the people.
What are reserved powers and what amendment guarantees it?
The 10th Amendment states that powers which are not reserved to the Federal Gov. are reserved to the states or the people
What are two main weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
No central leadership (executive branch), Congress had no power to tax or enforce laws
What group of individuals were opposed to ratification of the Constitution? What group was in favor?
Federalists were in favor, Anti-Federalists were opposed
What is federalism?
Gov that divides the power between national and state governments.
What is interstate commerce?
Commerce going between state lines
What is intrastate commerce?
Commerce that stays within states lines
What is the necessary and proper clause?
Article I section 8, Congress can make "all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution"
How many members are in the House of Representatives?
How is membership determined in the House of Representatives?
Elections every two years, Requirements: at least 25 years old, citizen for 7 years, and legal residents of the state they are elected in.
How long is a term of office for a member in the House of Representatives?
How many members are in the Senate?
100 (2 per state)
How is membership determined in the Senate?
Elections every 2 years (so only ⅓ is up for re-election each time), Requirements: At least 30 years old, citizen for 9 years, legal resident of the state they represent
How long is a term of office for a member of the Senate?
Who has the power to declare war?
What is gerrymandering?
Drawing political boundaries to give your party a numeric advantage over an opposing party
Who determines the time, place, and manner of elections?
Who is in charge of the House?
Speaker of the House (Nancy Pelosi)
What is the confirmation power of the Senate?
Confirm presidential appointments
How many Senators are needed for confirmation?
What is the ratification power of the Senate?
How many Senators are needed for ratification?
Who is in charge of the Senate?
Majority Leader (Or The Vice President)
How can Congress override a presidential veto?
Requires a ⅔ vote in each chamber
What amendment changed how senators are selected?
Amendment 17: Senators are now directly elected by their states
What is a filibuster?
Tactic used to delay or block a vote (senators talk for a loooong time)
Where do most bills die in the legislative process?
Most die in committee
How many members are needed in each chamber of Congress to pass a piece of legislation?
A simple majority
Who has the power of impeachment?
House of Representatives
Who has the power to acquit or find the President guilty of impeachment charges?
Which amendment set term limits for the President?
Which amendment provided Washington DC with electoral votes?
How many electoral votes did Washington DC receive?
What are the qualifications to be President of the United States?
At least 35, Born in the U.S., Resident for 14 years
How many electoral votes does Utah have?
How many votes are needed to win the electoral college?
What is an executive agreement?
Like a treaty, but it is not voted on by the senate. It is politically binding, not lawfully binding. Is an agreement between two heads of state.
Did the War Powers Act increase or decrease presidential power?
What is the name for a formal agreement between two or more countries?
What tool of foreign policy is used to build relationships with other countries?
What is an executive order?
Like a law, but the president can create it without the approval of congress. Having the force of law
What are the formal qualifications to serve on the Supreme Court?
no set formal qualifications
How many justices sit on the Supreme Court?
Why do Supreme Court justices serve for life?
So they are immune from political pressures, and that is necessary so that they can be objective
What is the process to get nominated and appointed to the Supreme Court?
President nominates someone, Senate majority confirms, Judges serve for life
What is the one criteria that presidents use to determine who to nominate onto the Supreme Court?
What is judicial review?
The power to declare acts of gov unconstitutional, therefore eliminating them
What are civil liberties?
Fundamental rights and freedoms protected from infringement by the gov
What are civil rights?
Protections from discrimination as a member of a particular group based on race, nationality, religion, sex, etc.
What is the establishment clause?
Congress cannot establish a national religion (separation of church and state)
What is the free exercise clause?
Protects freedom of religion, religious beliefs as well as actions made on behalf of them
What is the exclusionary rule?
Evidence gained illegally by police cannot be used against the person in court
What is the equal protection clause?
Everyone is protected equally under the law
What is affirmative action?
Special consideration to individuals based on their characteristics (designed to address the consequence of previous descrimination)
What is a political party?
Alliance of like minded people who work together to win elections and control the government
What is a party platform?
Set of beliefs the political party stands on
Which political party most closely aligns with the conservative ideology?
Which political party most closely aligns with the liberal ideology?
Why does the United States have a two-party system?
Because of our winner takes all system
What is the main purpose/function of a political party?
Elect individuals that will uphold the beliefs of the party in legislation
Differences between Democrats and Republicans on issues.
Gov responsible for social reform/change
Less involved gov
What are interest groups?
Group of people who share common goals and organize to influence gov (on all 3 levels of gov)
What are the main functions of interest groups?
Influence gov by supporting candidates who favor their ideas, but they do not nominate candidates for office (single-issue minded)
What are lobbyists?
Individuals who advocate for interest groups
What amendment decreased voter turnout?
26th (voter age decrease)
What are voter ID laws?
Laws that require gov photo id for registered voters to vote
What amendment outlawed poll taxes?
What amendment forbade denial of voting on the basis of race?
What amendment removed voting restrictions on the basis of gender?
How does age influence who is more likely to vote in elections?
Older people are more likely to vote
How does education influence who is more likely to vote in elections?
Yes, more educated individuals vote
How does voter registration impact voter turnout?
Yes, it decreases voter turnout
What is political efficacy?
Belief that in order to support democratic gov, a citizen should always vote
Why was part of the Voting Rights Act ruled unconstitutional?
The states have the right to determine where and how elections are held (states shouldn't have to make sure with the federal gov first)
Recommended textbook explanations
Magruder's American Government
United States Government: Our Democracy
Donald A. Ritchie, Richard C. Remy
Magruder's American Government (Texas)
Daniel M. Shea
Magruder's American Government (Florida Student Edition)
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