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US HIST 140- Ch.17
Terms in this set (50)
What did historian Frederick Jackson Turner argue about the importance of the western
frontier in American history in 1893?
It made the United States different from Europe
Which statement describes the U.S. government's Indian policy during the middle of the
The government pushed Indians off their lands and into reservations
Why did the Plains Indians sign the Treaty of Fort Laramie, which ceded some of their land
to allow the passage of wagon trains?
They hoped to preserve their culture in the face of white onslaught
What happened at the Sand Creek Massacre in November 1864?
Colonel John M. Chivington butchered 270 Indians
Which group or groups decimated the buffalo herds on the Great Plains in the late
Railroads and irresponsible hide hunters
Who led the Great Sioux Uprising in 1862?
Which statement describes life on the Indian reservations?
Poverty and starvation stalked Indian reservations
In what manner did William Tecumseh Sherman successfully defeat the Comanchería?
Using the scrorched-earth policy he'd perfected during his March to the Sea
What was the outcome of the second Treaty of Fort Laramie?
The treaty was violated by the U.S. government after gold was discovered in the Black
What happened to the Sioux after their victory at the Battle of the Little Big Horn?
They were hunted down by the American army
What occurred under the "outing system" of the 1880s?
Indian children were forced to live with white families over summer vacation
Who argued in the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor that the Indians had been treated
Helen Hunt Jackson
What was the outcome of the Dawes Allotment Act of 1887?
Division of reservations and allotment of individual plots of land to Native Americans
Which fleeing Indian tribe was hunted down by the U.S. army just 50 miles from Canada in
Who was Geronimo?
An Apache warrior and chieftain who led raiding parties and burned ranches on both
sides of the Mexican border
What occurred after Geronimo surrendered to General Miles in 1886?
The government sent nearly five hundred Apaches to prisons in the South.
What was the Ghost Dance?
A religious ritual that was supposed to lead to the destruction of white and the return
Which of the following explains why the U.S. army gunned down unarmed Sioux at
Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota in 1890?
American soldiers feared an uprising provoked by a militant interpretation of the
Ghost Dance religion.
What was the Comstock Lode?
The richest vein of silver ore found on the North American continent
Which of the following describes the impact of the wealth produced in the Nevada mining
It enriched speculators in San Francisco.
What was the easiest way to get rich in the American silver mining industry?
Selling claims to land or forming mining companies and selling stock
Which was the largest ethnic group in the western mining district of the United States in
the late nineteenth century?
What impact did the discovery of precious metals on the Comstock have for Native
Destruction of their land
Which of the following terms best characterizes Virginia City, Nevada, and other mining
centers in the late nineteenth century?
Sprawling industrialized communities
Which of the following is true of labor unions in the western mining industry?
They formed early and held considerable bargaining power.
Which group or groups composed the population of the area from the Great Plains to the
Pacific Ocean during the last decades of the nineteenth century?
People from various parts of Europe, Asia, and the Americas
Which of the following describes women in Virginia City by 1870?
They worked primarily as housekeepers.
For what reason were African American troops, known as Buffalo soldiers, serving in the
West during the Indian Wars?
Native Americans thought their hair resembled that of the bison.
Which of the following describes the changes experienced by the Californios between 1850
Their percentage of the state's population fell by more than 60 percent.
How did the Utah legislature counter the criticism of polygamy in 1870?
It gave women the right to vote.
Chinese immigrants made up what proportion of the workforce that built America's first
What was the purpose of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882?
To decrease the Chinese population of the American West
Who eventually replaced Chinese workers, especially in agriculture, after the Chinese
For what reason did hundreds of thousands of Americans migrate to the West in the three
decades after 1870?
To own their own land
Along with the Homestead Act of 1862, which factor helped stimulate the land rush in the
The opening of the transcontinental railroad
Which of the following describes how life in the agrarian West compared to life in the
What did the Homestead Act of 1862 promise to potential migrants to the West?
one hundred sixty acres free to any citizen or prospective citizen who settled on land
west of the Mississippi River for five years
Which of the following characterizes life for women on the western frontier in the late
They were forced to work hard to accomplish even the simplest tasks.
How did the landscape of the trans-Mississippi West change between 1870 and 1900?
Family farms gave way to commercial farming.
What were the "chips" that served as the most prevalent form of fuel used for cooking and
heating in the plains in the latter half of the nineteenth century?
Chunks of dried cattle and buffalo dung
By the 1870s, homesteaders discovered that most of the prime land in the West was
already in the hands of speculators.
What did the state and federal governments do to encourage railroad construction in the
decades after the Civil War?
They gave railroad companies 180 million acres of public land.
What did settlers passing through the western portion of Kansas and Nebraska and the
eastern portion of Colorado in the years after 1870 call the area?
The Great American Desert
Of the 2.5 million farms established between 1860 and 1900, homesteading accounted for
How did the invention of barbed wire revolutionize the cattle industry?
It allowed ranchers to fence in their cattle.
Which of the following describes African American cowboys in the West in the late
They had a substantial presence in the region but not in the fiction of the time.
What was the outcome of the transformation of agriculture to big business in the South
and West during the post-Civil War era?
An increasing number of laborers worked land they would never own
Between 1870 and 1900, the population of rural America shrank from 80 percent to 66
percent while the agricultural sector of the economy experienced what change?
It grew through mechanization, commercialization, and expanding urban markets.
Henry Miller and Charles Lux fit into which of the following categories?
Pioneers in the field of agribusiness
By the late nineteenth century, farmers were no longer the self-sufficient yeomen anchoring
the republic as originally described by which of the following men?
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