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The American West 1860-1896
Review of the American West
Terms in this set (36)
the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite. Farmers declining power at the hands of Eastern capitalists would lead to the rise of populism in the 1890's
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party. He was a great speaker and inspired audiences with his emotional calls for justice for rural Americans.
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads.
network of farmers' organizations that worked for political and economic reforms in the late 1800s
Little Big Horn
Battle between Custer's Seventh Cavalry and the Sioux, Custer's Seventh was decimated
Indian tribe led by Chief Joseph; ordered onto a reservation in Idaho in 1877, they fled instead; after giving up they were removed to a reservation in Oklahoma
areas of federal land set aside for American Indians as a way to concentrate their populations and seize their lands
Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)
Government agency that manages and finances many of the schools on Native American Reservations.
These places were created in order to forcibly assimilate Indian children to white culture. They cut their hair, converted them to Christianity, forced them to change their language and used various other ways to make Indian children act like white Americans.
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west. It would link the produce of increasing numbers of farmers and ranchers to the growing cities of the Eastern United States.
the shifting line between Indian nations and white settlement that would become a war zone between these too very different cultures
Communities that grew suddenly when a mine opened, the would soon become ghost towns when the mines were exhausted.
Mineral strikes in the west made their arrival among the earliest white settlers in the west
self-appointed law enforcers, they became a necessity as settlement of the frontier would often outpace the state's ability to provide law enforcement
a common feature of the lawlessness of the west, many towns worked to outlaw guns within their limits in order to keep the peace
A vast area of grassland owned by the government where ranchers could graze their herds without costs and move their herds to rail-heads known as cow-towns.
this invention was a cheep way to fence off land for farming and break up the open range
With the lack of lumber in the Great Plains, farmers built homes out of this combination of grass, roots and dirt. Cool in the summer and warm in winter, these homes were not without problems including that snakes and animals would often burrow in walls
Mail order products
Like modern Amazon, Sears and Roebuck and Montgomery Ward provided this through their published catalogs. (These catalogs were often repurposed at the end of its life in farmer's outhouses!)
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25. This would help develop newly acquired lands
One of America's fastest growing businesses in the late 19th century, they connected rural farmers to Eastern markets. The federal government generously supported these businesses and their owners became the richest and most powerful men in America.
The need for low cost labor would invite the immigration of these hard working people who made up a bulk of the labor force for the Union Pacific Railroad
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices. It was the first federal regulatory commission in America and was made to protect farmers from being "railroaded".
The decrease in the value of money, it was desired by farmers since it would increase their crop prices but not the debt they had accumulated. Eastern bankers, on the other hand, were very much against this wanting to protect the value of the money they had accumumated
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Since it was not backed by gold or silver, the government would not be limited by how much it could print thus it could be used to support the inflation desired by farmers.
1894 he along with other unemployed people lead a march to Washington, D.C., to support enactment of laws that would create public works projects. This demonstrated the anger in the public and supported the call to populism.
The Republican candidate and opponent of the populism of William Jennings Bryan, he was supported by Eastern businesses who wanted to avoid the loose money policies supported by westerners
An animal that was used by the Plains Indians for food, shelter, and clothing. A program of wiping out buffalo as a way to remove Indians from the plains was supported by the Federal government in the 1880's.
Reserved as Indian territory until the 20th century, it was the forced destination for Indians for a period of over 70 years including the Cherokee and Nez Perce
Dawes Act of 1887
tried to civilize Indians and make them more little settlers by giving them land to farm, instead it harmed their native culture
process of acquiring or causing a Indians to acquire American traits and characteristics. this was the purpose of American Indian boarding schools that promoted the idea of "kill the Indian and save the man".
Wounded Knee massacre, 1890
The last major encounter between Native Americans and the U.S. Army.
Remembered today as one of the great injustices perpetrated against Native Americans by the U.S. government.
Ghost Dance Movement
a Native American movement that called for a return to traditional ways of life and challenged white dominance in society. They hoped for a Messiah (a Jesus like figure) to return the buffalo and make the white men disappear and return Indians to their old ways.
Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
Event at which
Colonel John Chivington
and his troops attacked and destroyed a village of friendly Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped in southeastern Colorado Territory; killed over 150 inhabitants, about two-thirds of whom were women and children. This would incite two decades of Indian wars marked by viscous attacks of Indians and white settlers
new technology that led to the modern machine gun, it helped make small forces of American soldiers hold off much larger attacks of Indians
Helen Hunt Jackson
A writer. Author of the 1881 book A Century of Dishonor. The book exposed the U.S. governments many broken promises to the Native Americans. For example the government wanted Native Americans to assimilate, i.e. give up their beliefs and ways of life, that way to become part of the white culture.
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