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psychology test 1
Terms in this set (36)
Studies behavior and mental processes. Why do we do what
physiology and cognitive processes
Behavior is a result of:
Normal physical activities (breathing,
activities (thinking, reasoning, remembering)
yes. Ever not get enough sleep and have trouble
thinking the next day?
Ever get so lost in a thought or mental activity
you don't realize you are hungry?
Do Physiology and cognition effect one another?
Being aware of "the inner nature of things" is
what your text says.
Having an idea of the "why" of situations and
behavior. people behave differently
Provide insight into behavior.
This can then lead to any necessary changes in
behavior (or treatment).
Psychology aims to:
Hypothesis: an educated guess about behavior.
Studies are then conducted to test a hypothesis.
Theories are then formulated and altered as more
data comes in.
How do we gain insight?
-Attempt to influence behavior (in beneficial ways,
What do psychologists do with insight?
research for the sake of research
using research to accomplish
empirical methods (based on observation and experimentation)
what methods does psychology use to conduct research?
- functionalists, Inherited traits, Psychoanalysis (Freudian),Behaviorist,
Humanist, Cognitivist, Psychobiologist, Sociocultural psychologist
psychology has developed and evolved over the past hundred years and multiple approaches have developed:
study the purposes of conscious behavior as we adapt to
study of how biological traits (heredity) passed from
parent to child.
most assumptions based on nature and not nurture
The perspective that unconscious motives and conflicts determine
Generally, most of what we do is due not to a conscious decision
but some unconscious need / want / motive
Believed that only observable behavior could truly be studied (unlike
psychoanalysis where the unconscious motives are studied)
Believed that most behavior , even "instinctive" behavior, is the
result of conditioning to a stimulus.
Did not believe that humans have no real choice in their behavior (unlike
psychoanalysis and behaviorists).
Events in our environment are "background" and not controlling.
Each individual has the ability to develop uniquely and fully, growth
leads to a more satisfying life.
Behavior is not just a response to a stimulus.
It is influenced by mental processes; perceptions, memories,
expectations, prior learning, how material is processed.
All of the above influence how we problem solve, think, use
Focus on how physical and chemical changes in the brain effect
often use MRIs, PET, CAT scans
Focus on how our behavior and feelings are dependent upon the
culture to which we belong.
Also look at gender and socioeconomic forces on behavior.
a medical doctor whose specialty is in psychiatry. Can
prescribe medications, admit people to hospitals,
a person with a doctoral level degree (not a medical
doctor). May not prescribe medicine. They observe, evaluate behavior.
There are multiple fields of practice, study and research.
Examples of psychological fields.
more known: clinical psychology, counseling psychology,.
Less known: developmental, rehabilitation, enviornmental, industrial and engineering, experimental psychologist
Deals with helping people handle personal problems. They work in private
offices, mental hospitals, prisons.
Tend to work with more serious issues of schizophrenia and major depressive disorders
Usually help people handle everyday problems and adjust to
Tend to work with healthier people who need help with emotional or physical stresses of
relationship, career, substance abuse counseling (among others). They work in private offices, schools, firms.
(growth, and changes throughout life and in the process
(working with developmental disabilities, victims of
accidents or violence)
(effects of natural disasters, pollution, overcrowding)
industrial and engineering psychology
(workplace design, human / machine
relationships and interactions)
they design and implement
Experiments differ from other research methods like "observation" and
Experiments allow researchers to CONTROL the situations and outside
1. Ask a question
3. Determine variables
4. Experiment (testing) [two groups, one experiment and one control]
5. Collect data / measurements
6. Interpret results
six steps of experimenting
the limits one needs to follow
to conduct experimental research. There are a number of guidelines designed by the American
Psychological Association (APA)
Most revolve around following laws, giving complete information to
participants, assuming responsibility for the dignity and welfare of all
Beyond ethical issues, there are things
to avoid in research:
A situation in which a researcher's expectations influence that person's
own behavior and thereby influence the participant's behavior
facial expressions, body language, even breathing
participants knowingly or unknowingly pick up on those and adjust
behavior. (We can sometimes see this in life.
We expect a person to behave in a particular way, look for reasons to
support that and eventually, the other person will behave that way)
A change in a patient's physical state that results solely from the
knowledge and perceptions of treatment.
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