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BB: L.2 ABO Blood Groups
Terms in this set (27)
What are the four major ABO phenotypes?
A, B, AB, O
ABO phenotypes are controlled by which chromosome?
2 co-dominant genes on chromosome 9
- one gene from each parent
Group O is an _______________, which means there is no corresponding antigen at the locus.
What is the major glycoprotein in the red cell membrane?
How early are ABO antigens detected in utero?
as early as 5 weeks
- full expression occurs at 2-4 years
A and B antigen formation is dependent on the ______ antigen.
- H antigen is inherited independently of the ABO system antigens
ABH antigens are _______________ which transfer a certain carbohydrate to a glycolipid precursor on the RBC membrane.
What is the common antigen building blood for A, B, and H antigens?
An oligosaccharide chain attached to either a protein or lipid carrier molecule
- the oligosaccharide chain is made of four sugar molecules linked in linear form or in more complex structures with a high degree of branching
H gene produces a transferase that transfers _________________(a sugar) to this substrate on the membrane.
Once fucose is added, this allows the attachment of what?
N-acetylgalactosamine for Group A
D-galactose for group B
_________________ is the immunodominant sugar for A antigen.
_______________ is the immunodominant sugar for B antigen.
Once H substance is converted to A or B substances, the H determinant is masked by the A or B sugars.
In group O, is there a sugar added?
No; fucose is not converted = large amounts of H antigen
HH or Hh alleles are need for the formation of the H antigen.
When hh is present, the ____________________ is a result.
- lack H, A, and B antigens
Why does anyone lacking the A and B antigens build antibodies?
- from routine exposure
- ABO antigens are naturally occurring in food, bacteria, pollens, etc.
- usually IgM
T or F: ABO antibodies are not produced in children until 3-6 months of age.
Group O produces which antibodies?
Which subgroups are very rare, A or B?
B subgroups are very rare
____% of group A people are subgroup A1.
____% of group A people are subgroup A2.
What is the difference between A1 and A2 red cell phenotypes?
Which A subgroup demonstrates mixed field agglutination?
What is Landsteiner's rule?
you make antibodies for the antigens you don't have
List the H-antigen concentration of ABO phenotypes in order of most H-antigen to least.
Explain the process of forward typing.
- mix patient red cells (unknown antigen) with commercial anti-sera (known antibody)
- Use Anti-A, Anti-B, and Anti-A,B
- agglutination is observed if complementary antigen and antibody are present.
Explain the process of reverse typing.
-patient's serum (antibody) is mixed with commercial A and B red cells (antigen)
Describe the following agglutination reactions by grading them:
- one solid aggregate of cells
- several large aggregates
- medium size aggregates, clear background
- small aggregates; turbid, reddish background
- no aggregates
- one solid aggregate of cells: 4+
- several large aggregates: 3+
- medium size aggregates, clear background: 2+
- small aggregates; turbid, reddish background: 1+
- no aggregates: = (negative)
Most ABO antibodies are ________ but can be IgG in group O from transfusions or pregnancy.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
BB L.1: Immunologic Principles
BB: L.3 Genetics Related to Immunohemato…
BB L.4 ABO Discrepancies
BB L.5 Direct Antiglobulin Test (DAT)
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