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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
US HISTORY TEST - The American Civil War
Test on Friday January 22, 2021
Terms in this set (108)
1. WEAKENED the Democratic party in the North
2. The Whig party, the Free Soil party, and the Know-Nothing party merged to form the new REPUBLICAN party.
What were two political EFFECTS of the KANSAS-NEBRASKA ACT of 1854?
Pro-abolition forces paid for families to move to Kansas.
Pro-slavery groups sent small militas to Kansas.
What did pro-abolition forces in the North and pro-slavery groups in the South do to tip the popular sovereignty vote in Kansas?
1. Small farmers with one or two slaves
2. Owners with a slave or two working as domestic servants (in their homes)
What two things did slave owners in Kansas in the 1850s consist of?
They shots up and burned this abolitionist town.
What did pro-slavery militias do to the town of LAWRENCE, Kansas on May 21 1856?
They butchered five pro-slavery men at Potawatomie Creek.
What did radical abolitionist John Brown and his army do in response to the burning of Lawrence, Kansas?
The pro-slavery state constitution was written to make slavery legal anyway.
Even though Kansas held a popular sovereignty vote in 1857, what was true about slavery in Kansas no matter what?
Anti-slavery forces boycotted the popular sovereignty vote in Kansas.
Why did the Lecompton Constitution pass?
Because the Lacompton Constitution was rigged, due to it mainly be made up of Pro-slavery ideas when the Abolitionist boycotted the vote.
Why did Congress and Senator Stephen A. Douglas refuse to grant Kansas its statehood?
as a free state
When Kansas' constitution was rewritten, how would Kansas enter the Union?
Harriet Beecher STOWE's novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin, which depicted southern slavery
What turned many lukewarm Northerners against the institution of slavery?
that the plantation system hurt small farmers in the South
What did NC author Hinton Helper argue in his book?
What was the "cotton aristocracy"?
Republican: John C. Fremont
Democrat: James Buchanan
Buchanan won a majority of the popular and Electoral College votes.
Who were the presidential nominees in the election of 1856? Who won?
1. DRED SCOTT V. STANFORD:
- a slave could never be free (even in a free state)
- the Missouri Compromise had been unconstitutional
2. the FINANCIAL Panic of 1857:
- decline in US stock market
- collapse of wheat prices
- bankruptcy of large companies
- international economic weaknesses
What were two difficult events for Buchanan during his presidency?
1. It was a supreme court decision that prevented slaves from becoming free, even if they moved to a FREE state.
2. the now-repealed Missouri Compromise had been an UNCONSTITUTIONAL exercise of power over territories by congress.
3. The Dred Scott was probably the worst-reasoned case of the Supreme Court and contained demeaning LANGUAGE towards African Americans.
What are three things about the Dred Scott v. Stanford decision (written by Chief Justice Roger Taney)?
It contained extremely demeaning language toward African Americans.
What made the Dred Scott decision (written by Chief Justice Roger Taney) the worst-reasoned case of the Supreme Court?
1. a decline in the U.S. STOCK market (due to speculation in railroad stocks)
2. the collapse of WHEAT prices on the international markets
3. the BANKRUPTCY of several large U.S. companies
4. international economic WEAKNESS (because the world economy was becoming more interconnected)
5. One major feature was RUNS on banks
What five causes did the FINANCIAL PANIC of 1857 that Buchanan had to deal with as president include?
The price of COTTON remained high.
Why did the South remain in good shape during the FINANCIAL panic of 1857?
RUNS on banks (customers withdrawing deposits in fear of the banks going bankrupt)
What was one major feature of the FINANCIAL panic of 1857?
Republican: Abraham Lincoln
Democrat: Stephen A. Douglas
Who were the two candidates for U.S. senator in Illinois in 1858?
1. Douglas' concept of POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY (Kansas-Nebraska Act)
2. the future of SLAVERY
What were the two main subjects of the seven LINCOLN-DOUGLAS debates during the U.S. Senatorial election in Illinois?
through newspapers all over the country that published the Lincoln-Douglas debates
How did Lincoln become a national figure?
Stephen A. Douglas, because the Illinois Senate had a Democrat majority
Even though Lincoln became a national figure through the Lincoln-Douglas debates, who won the Senatorial election in Illinois and why?
to give his famous "COOPER Union Speech" in New York City (February 27, 1860)
The response was electric, and even Connecticut asked Lincoln to come and give a speech there.
What was Lincoln invited to do after he became famous from the Lincoln-Douglas debates?
What was the response to Lincoln's speech?
1. Chattel slavery in the South was IMMORAL, Lincoln believed in "FREE LABOR" (being able to work freely)
2. Slavery must not EXPAND beyond the 15 states and DC where it was legal, especially not into TERRITORIES seeking admission as states.
3. Lincoln was NOT an ABOLITIONIST.
What three POINTS did Lincoln make over and over again during the Lincoln-Douglas debates and the presidential campaign?
Sen. William Seward of New York
Who was the favorite Republican candidate in the election of 1860?
at the Republican Convention in CHICAGO
Where would Lincoln become a force as a Republican candidate for the election of 1860?
He led a raid on the federal arsenal (weapons storage facility) intending to lead a massive SLAVE REBELLION.
What did the radical abolitionist John Brown do at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (October 15, 1859)?
The slaves never heard of Brown's raid or his plans to rebel.
Why did John Brown's slave rebellion when he raided the federal arsenal not materialize?
Lt. Col. Robert E. Lee led the U.S. army led an assault, captured Brown, and he was TRIED for murder and treason and rebellion against Virginia, and EXECUTED.
What happened to John Brown after he raided the federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia?
murder, treason, and rebellion against Virginia
He was executed.
What was the radical abolitionist tried for after he raided the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia?
What was his punishment?
- to the abolitionists: a MARTYR for the cause
- to southerners: a radical abolitionist figure that made them wonder if they could remain in the Union as slave states
Who was John Brown to abolitionists and who was he to southerners?
North: Stephen A. Douglas
South: current Vice President John C. Breckenridge of Kentucky
Who were the Democratic nominees, nominated in two separate conventions, for the presidential election of 1860?
John Bell of Tennessee (slaveholder and member of U.S. House and Senate, but pro-Union)
Who was the Third Party nominee in the election of 1860?
in Chicago at a temporary building called the WIGWAM
Where did the Republicans nominate Lincoln for the 1860 presidential election?
Who won on the third ballot during the election of 1860, even though Sen. William Seward was the favorite Republican nominee?
He appointed him his secretary of state (he probably was Lincoln's most valuable adviser).
When Lincoln was elected president, what position did he give to Sen. William Seward of New York?
U.S. Sen. Hannibal Hamlin of Maine
Who was the vice presidential nominee for the election of 1860?
Since the Democrats were divided between two candidates, Lincoln knew that if he made no serious campaign mistakes, he would probably win the election.
Why did Lincoln make few public appearances and said and did as little as possible in the campaign of 1860?
How much of the POPULAR vote did Lincoln win?
Nominees Douglas and Beckenridge split the Democratic vote.
What made it easy for Lincoln to win a solid majority in the Electoral College?
No - only 1.5 percent in Virginia (in several states like Alabama, his name did not even appear on the ballot)
Did Lincoln win many votes in the South?
They seceded from the Union.
How did Southerners react to Lincoln's election?
that Lincoln was an ABOLITIONIST (even if he said he wasn't) and that his election was a RISK to their economy and way of life
What did southerners believe about Lincoln and his election?
South Carolina, because it had a bigger slave population than white people
6 other southern states
What was the first state to leave the Union and why?
How many states followed suit soon after?
Delegates of the seven states that had seceded from the Union met to form the CONFEDERATE States of America (CSA).
What happened in Montgomery, Alabama in February 1861?
Jefferson Davis of Mississippi (former U.S. Cabinet member)
Who became the first President of the CSA?
in order to encourage Virginia to leave the Union
Why did the delegates move the CSA capital to RICHMOND?
1. He reminded the South that he was NOT an ABOLITIONIST.
2. He argued that a "Union" of states is PERPETUAL, so the South had no constitutional right to secede.
3. He called on the seceded states to remember the common history of the American Revolution and reenter the Union.
What were three points from Lincoln's First inaugural Address?
- Sen. John J. Crittenden wanted to coax the CSA back into the Union.
- It would have included an amendment that guaranteed in the constitution the right to hold slaves.
- Lincoln clearly opposed this compromise, so it never passed.
What was the CRITTENDEN Compromise with the South?
the right of HABEUS CORPUS, so that spies and enemies could be held indefinitely with no evidence brought against them
What civil rights did Lincoln suspend under his under his powers as commander in chief (war powers)?
to keep the BORDER states of Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri in the Union
Why did Lincoln have to walk a political tightrope?
Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri - slave states that remained in the Union
What were the BORDER States?
He was taking this stand to keep the Border States (slave states that remained in the Union) in the Union.
What was probably the main reason why Lincoln publicly stated that the War was about preserving the Union and not about freeing the slaves?
1. substantial additional MANPOWER
2. substantial additional INDUSTRIAL capacity
What two advantages would the Union's loss of the Border States bring to the South?
1. the Border States (slave states that remained int the Union)
2. the "Butternut Region" (Southern Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio where transplanted southerners lived)
What were two worrisome regions for Lincoln?
Southern Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio where southerners had moved after selling small plots in the South to members of the "slave aristocracy"
What was the "Butternut Region"?
Many families had relatives fighting on both sides of the War.
(Mary Lincoln had four brothers fighting for the CSA and Sen. Crittenden of Kentucky had sons in both Union and Confederate armies.)
Why do we call the Civil War the "Brothers' War"?
Fort SUMTER (guarded the harbor at Charleston, SC)
When Southern states seized federal arsenals and forts, which famous fort remained in U.S. military hands?
resupply but not rearm
(because it remained in U.S. military hands)
What did Lincoln announce in April 1861 that he would do for Fort Sumter?
They considered it an act of aggression and militia from South Carolina bombarded the fort, which surrendered the next day.
How did the CSA respond to Lincoln announcing to resupply, but not rearm Fort Sumter?
Both sides of the Civil war would immediately call for volunteers, and they would later institute a __________ for soldiers.
In the North, a man could buy his way out for $300.
In the South, he was legally exempt if he held 20 or more slaves.
How could men in the North avoid being drafted into the army?
How could men in the South avoid being drafted into the army?
The IRISH immigrants in New York rioted, killing dozens of African Americans. They feared that if the North won the war, the freed slaves would flood north and take their low-level jobs.
Who rioted against the draft? What did they do? Why did they riot?
They feared that if the North won the war, the freed slaves would flood the north and take the Irish's low-level jobs.
Why did the IRISH immigrants in New York riot against the draft and kill dozens of African Americans?
Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee (moving the total number of states in the CSA to 11)
What states decided to secede from the Union because of the events at Fort Sumter?
1. Lincoln and Gen. Winfield Scott (first of many Union commanders) felt they could win a quick battle that would discourage the South.
2. However, the South routed the Union because of Gen. Thomas "STONEWALL" Jackson.
3. Lincoln replaced Scott with George MCCLELLAN, a genius at TRAINING his army, but hesitant to use it.
What three things happened during the first Battle of Bull Run?
Union General who was a genius at TRAINING his army, but was extremely HESITANT to use it.
Who was George McClellan?
1. Lincoln persuaded McClellan to move toward Richmond (Anaconda plan).
2. McClellan faced Gen. Robert E. Lee.
3. Lee forced McClellan to retreat back to Washington D.C. just as he reached Richmond.
What happened in the Peninsula Campaign 1862?
What did the "cotton aristocracy" managed to do to Helper's book?
they banned it in the most southern states
1. He RESIGNED his commission in the U.S. Army, believing his greater obligation was to his State of Virginia.
2. He took COMMAND of the main body of the CSA Army of Northern Virginia.
What did Robert E. Lee do when Lincoln asked him to command the Union army?
The Army of the POTOMAC
What was the name of the main Union army?
1. capture RICHMOND
2. control the MISSISSIPPI River
- to cut off southern transportation and to cut off Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas off from the rest of the CSA.
3. seek to BREAK up the South by attacking Georgia and South Carolina
4. free SLAVES wherever possible
- undermine Southern economy and provide more soldiers for the Union
5. seek to wear down LEE'S army
6. BLOCKADE southern ports
- to prevent cotton exports and importation of weapons and ammunition by the CSA from Europe
What were the six Union objectives of the Civil War (the ANACONDA plan developed by Gen. Winfield Scott)?
Britain depended very heavily on southern cotton for its textile mills (80% of Britain's cotton exports).
Why did the South think if the North blockaded southern ports, it would bring British help to the CSA?
1. DIPLOMATIC recognition of the CSA by Britain
2. the sale from Britain of WEAPONS and war-ready ships and ammunition
What "help" did the South want from Britain?
1. OVERSUPPLY of cotton already in Britain
2. because of key Union victories
3. Britain could not ignore Lincoln's EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION since they had already abolished slavery.
4. poor harvest in Britain caused them to need the importation of WHEAT almost as much as cotton.
For what 4 reasons, in the end, did the British not help the South in the War, like they thought they would?
The Union ship Monitor and the CSA ship Merrimack (clad with iron) battled to a draw in the Chesapeake Bay. They rendered all other navies in the world obsolete because their ships were wood.
What event led to the US Navy using steam boats instead of wooden ones?
The Battle of ANTIETAM
- 3,600 soldiers died in one day.
- battle fought to draw, but Lee was forced to retreat back into the CSA granting victory to the Union
What was the key battle of the Maryland Campaign by Lee?
1. try to impress the BRITISH into recognizing the CSA and helping them in the war
2. to encourage the BORDER states to SECEDE from the Union
What were Lee's two goals in invading the North in the Maryland Campaign?
1. the key battle was at ANTIETAM (3,600 died in one day)
2. Lee sought to invade the North to impress the BRITISH and encourage the Border States to SECEDE.
3. McClellan failed to chase Lee, so Lincoln sacked him.
4. the Union victory at Antietam enabled Lincoln to issue his EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION.
List four points about the MARYLAND CAMPAIGN.
1. The narrow victory at Antietam gave him the ability to issue the Proclamation without fear of the Border States leaving the Union.
2. He had promised God he would issue the Proclamation if the Lord gave him a good result in battle (Antietam).
3. The Republican Congress was becoming more vocal about abolition.
4. Lincoln believed abolition was the morally right thing to do.
For what four reasons did Lincoln issue the EMANCIPATION proclamation?
He felt he lacked the power to do so in the Border States and in Tennessee which was now occupied by the Union Army.
Why did Lincoln free slaves in 10 of the 11 CSA states?
Slaves were considered a ___________________ of war.
his constitutional WAR POWERS as commander in chief of the U.S military
Under what powers did Lincoln issue the EMANCIPATION Proclamation?
It dramatically shifted the purpose of the War from PRESERVING the Union to freeing the SLAVES.
Why was the Proclamation so important?
the Battle of Fredericksburg and of CHANCELLORSVILLE
What two battles did Lee win in brilliant fashion?
He was shot and mortally wounded by his own troops.
(Mr. Farish thinks it was God's providence for the victory of the Union)
What happened to Stonewall Jackson at the Battle of Chancellorsville?
1. to again try to win British support by securing a victory on northern soil
2. to try and wear down northern resolve to continue to fight in the War
3. to influence northern voters to vote democrat (against Lincoln)
What were three reasons why Lee again took the war North?
Lt. Col. Joshua Lawrence CHAMBERLAIN and his Maine volunteers
Who SAVED the Union on July 2 by a courageous bayonet charge?
It lead to horrendous loss of life, but Union Gen. George Meade failed to follow the retreating Lee and crush his army.
What happened in the disastrous PICKET'S Charge ordered by Lee?
Vicksburg, Mississippi SURRENDERED to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant after a two-month siege and the Union finally controlled the Mississippi River. (Anaconda Plan)
What happened at the Battle of VICKSBURG?
Grant won the battle and Lincoln promoted him to the position of GENERAL of the ARMY (a position only G. Washington had held).
What happened at the Battle of CHATTANOOGA?
He burned Atlanta and began his "MARCH to the SEA" to Savannah Georgia.
first example in history of "TOTAL WAR".
What did Gen. William T. Sherman do?
Grant knew he was wearing down Lee's Army which would eventually force the South to surrender.
Even though the northern public criticizing Grant for a lack of victories, what did Grant understand?
Peace Democrats who wanted an immediate peace treaty with the CSA and nominated George McClellan for president.
Who were the "Copperheads"?
The National UNION party that nominated Lincoln for president and Andrew Johnson (Democrat) for Vice President.
What did the War Democrats and the Republicans form?
No, he ran with the National Union party.
Did Lincoln run as a Republican in his second election?
The last page of notes were made by Em :)
At first Lincoln thought he was going to lose, but then three events happened that changed that perspective...What were they?
1. Sherman's capture of Atlanta
2. A win by Admiral David Farragut in the Battle of Mobile Bay
3. considerable damage to the CSA by Gen. Phillip Sherriden in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia in the fall of 1864
In the end of the second election what was the result?
Lincoln won easily in the popular and Electoral College
On April 3rd what did Grant finally capture, and how did the CSA leave it?
Lincoln visited Richmond on April 5th, and was hailed by who and given the name what?
1. newly freed slaves
2. "Father Abraham"
On April 9th, Lee surrendered his army where?
What generous surrender terms did Grant give Lee's army?
he allowed them to keep their horses and firearms
Where was the surrendered sign? Why is this "significant"?
1. In the parlor of Wilmer Mclean
2. Its funny bc the war started in his front yard and ended in his front parlor
Who was Lincoln assassinated, and when?
By John Wilkes Booth on Good Friday
What happened to Booth?
he was found and killed by federal troops a few days later
What did a War Secretary Edward Stanton say after Lincoln breathed his last?
"Now he belongs to the ages"
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