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HAAP chap 1
Terms in this set (42)
-greek meaning: apart, to cut
- the study of the structure and shape of the body, body parts, and their relationships to each other.
gross and microscopic anatomy
what are the subdivisions of anatomy?
this includes large structures like organs, heart, bones. can be seen w naked eye
includes small structures like cells/tissues that can only be seen w microscope
examples of anatomy
-gallbladder is a small thin walled green sac
- each fallopian/uterine tube is 10cm long
-hyoid bone is horseshoe shaped
greek meaning: the study of nature. it is the study of how the body and its parts work/function
Neurophysiology (nervous system), cardiac physiology (heart function), renal physiology ( urinary system)
subdivisions of physiology?
examples of physiology
-sour receptors of taste buds respond to hydrogen ions acidity of solution
-sweat is an acidic secretion that inhibits the growth of bacteria on skin
- Erythrocytes (RBC) transport O2
Levels of Structural Organization
chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organismal
Atoms combine to form molecules. Ex are: h2o, sugar, o2, co2, glucose, protein
Function always reflects structure.
Structure determines what function
how are A and P related?
examples of A and P
-Bones provide support & protection
to body due to hard mineral deposits.
-Blood flows in 1 direction
through heart because heart
valves prevent backflow.
-Lungs serve as site for
gas exchange since walls
of air sacs are extremely thin.
Organelles lead to development of cells
Cells: smallest living units.
Vary in size & shape; related to unique function.
Examples are rbc, sperm cells, nerve cells.
group of similar cells with a
4 basic tissue types: epithelial, connective, muscular, neural
structure composed of 2 or more
tissue types that perform specific function
Stomach: all 4 basic types of tissues.
Organ System Level
Organs work closely with one another to
accomplish common purpose.
Sum total of many organ
systems which all promote life.
YOU! Made up of 11 organ systems.
Necessary Life Functions
greek meaning of same, standing still. Body's ability to maintain stable
internal conditions even though
external conditions are changing.
When NEEDS are adequately met,
functions occur smoothly.
Homeostatic Control Mechanism
Consists of three components
Accomplished chiefly by nervous/endocrine systems. (receptor, control center, effector)
First: Receptor (type of sensor)
Responds to initial stimuli and sends information
(input) to control center
Second: Control Center (brain)
Analyzes info and determines appropriate response
Provides means for response (output) to stimuli
how does the homeostatic control mechanism work?
ex of Homeostatic Control Mechanism
Temperature in Home vs. Temperature in Human Body
-Too hot (sweat)
-Too cold (shiver, goosebumps)
Glucose levels in Human Body
-Ingest 4 donuts (Increase glucose)
Skipped breakfast, late for lunch (Decrease
Results of the response "feed back" to influence
stimuli either by depressing it or enhancing it.
-The output of the system decreases or
shuts off the original stimuli or reduces its
-Changes in direction opposite to that of
initial change / return to its "ideal" value.
body temp, glucose level, heart rate, blood
-Response enhances the original stimuli so
activity (output) is accelerated.
-Change that occurs proceeds in same
direction as initial change / causing it to
deviate further from "ideal" value.
-Sets off a series of events or "cascades".
-Few examples: blood clotting, enhancement of labor contractions during childbirth
the smallest units of all living things
small building blocks of matter
-all organisms must do this so the inside and outside remain distinct.
-all cells are surrounded by external membrane that contains contents that allow certain things in and which must stay out
- pertains to integumentary system bc the body is enclosed by the skin and protects internal organs from dying out, bacteria, damaging effects of sun, heat, chemical substances.
this is the largest external organ
- this is all the activities promoted by the muscular system
-this is swimming, walking, manipulating external environment w fingers
-occurs when blood, foodstuffs, urine are propelled through internal organs of the cardio, digestive, and urinary systems
- also pertains to skeletal system bc it provides the bones that the muscles pull on as they work.
-the ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then to react to them
- when amount of CO2 in blood is too high, your breathing speeds up to blow off excess CO2 and you don't even have to think about it, just happens
-pulling hand away from glass is involuntarily pull to get hand away from stimulus (glass)
- pertains to nervous system bc it bears the major responsibility for responsiveness.
-Breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood
-the nutrient enriched blood is disturbed to all cells by cardio system
- in a 1 cell organism (amoeba) the cell is known as digestion factory
- pertains to digestive system bc it performs the function for the entire complex multicellular body
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
-breaking down complex substances into simpler building blocks (monosachs, a.a, fatty acids, glycerol), making larger structures from smaller ones, using nutrients and O2 to produce molecules of ATP.
-depends on digestive and respiratory to make O2 and nutrients available to blood and on cardio to distribute needed things to body
- pertains to endocrine bc metabolism is regulated by hormones secreted by the glands of this system.
-the process by which wastes(excreta) are removed from the body
- for body to work correctly, must get rid of non-useful substances produced during digestion and metabolism
-many organ systems participate in this
- pertains to digestive bc it rids body of indigestible food residues in feces and in the urinary system bc it disposes nitrogen containing wastes.
-the production of offspring (occurs on cellular/organismal level)
- where original cell divides, producing 2 identical daughter cells that can be used for growth/repair
- making a new person is the task of organs in reproductive system to produce sperm and eggs and endocrine for regulating hormones.
-increase in size
- for this to occur, cell constructing activities must occur at a faster rate then cell destroying ones.
- pertains to endocrine bc hormones released in this system play a big role in directing growth.
-body takes in through food, contains chemicals used for energy and cell building
- carbs= energy providing fuel, proteins=essential for building cell structures. fats= cushion organs and provide reserve fuel. minerals/vitamins= required for reactions in cells and for o2 transport in blood.
-pertains to digestive bc this helped break down the food into simpler molecules to be absorbed.
-all nutrients are useless unless this is also present
-humans can only survive for a few min w/o o2
-20% of air is o2
- this is made available to blood and body cells by respiratory and cardio systems collaboration
-60-80% of body weight, single most abundant chemical substance in body and provides the fluid base for body secretions/excretions, obtain this by liquids/foods, lose this by evaporation from lungs/skin/body excretions
-pertains to urinary system bc it aids in excreting the waste that we have consumed
normal body temp
- for chem reactions to continue at the right levels, this must be maintained
- if it drops below 37c/98F reactions become slow and stop and if too high, they become fast and proteins break down. at either extreme-death
- pertains to skeletal bc most body heat is generated by activity of skeletal muscles.
the force exerted on the surface of the body by the weight of air, breathing and exchange of o2, co2 in lungs depend on appropriate pressure, at high altitudes, air is thin and pressure lower, the gas exchange is too slow to support metabolism.
- must be present in correct amounts or if it is ingested in too much/little, obesity, starvation, disease
- pertains to respiratory bc removes co2 and keeps normal amounts of o2 in body.
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