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Physio Exam 3
Terms in this set (84)
law of specific nerve energies
activity by a particular nerve always conveys the same type of information to the brain.
the center of the iris where light enters the eye
the rear surface of the eye where light is focused by the lens and the cornea, and is lined with visual receptors
In the retina, the specialized neurons that connect the rods and cones with the ganglion cells
Cells that send signals out of the eye to the brain
consists of the axons of ganglion cells that band together and exit through the back of the eye and travel to the brain
the point the optic nerve leaves the back of the eye because it contains no receptors
the central portion of the macula and allows for acute and detailed vision, and is packed tight with receptors, and nearly free of ganglion axons and blood vessels.
midget ganglion cell
ganglion cells in the fovea of humans which are small and respond to just a single cone
better sensitivity to dim light
most abundant in the periphery of the eye and respond to faint light (120mill/retina)
most abundant in and around the fovea (6 mill/retina), essential for color vision and more useful in bright light, and provide approx 90% of brains input.
chemicals contained by both rods and cones that release energy when struck by light, consist of 11-cis-retinal bound to proteins called opsins.
color perception occurs through the relative rates of response by 3 kinds of cones (short, medium, and long wavelength), each cone is maximally sensitive to a different set of wavelengths. The ratio of activity across the 3 types determines the color, and when are 3 are all equally active=white or gray.
suggests that we perceive color in terms of paired opposites, and possible bipolar cells are excited by one set of wavelengths and inhibited by another.
the ability to recognize color despite changes in lighting
suggests the cortex compares information from various parts of the retina to determine the brightness and color for each area. It involves reasoning, cortical contribution and better explains color constancy
color vision deficiency
impairment in perceiving color differences, caused by either the lack of a type of a cone or a cone has abnormal properties. Most common form is distinguishing between red and green.
in the eye that make inhibitory contact with bipolar cells
the place where the 2 optic nerves leaving the eye meet
lateral geniculate nucleus
part of the thalamus specialized for visual perception, the destination for most ganglion axon cells, sends axons to other parts of the thalamus and the visual area of the occipital cortex
the reduction of activity in one neuron by activity in neighboring neurons and is the retina's way of sharpening contrasts to emphasize the borders of objects
refers to the part of the visual field that either excites or inhibits a cell in the visual system of the brain, the point in space from which light strikes it
mostly located in or near the fovea, have smaller cell bodies and small receptive fields, connect only to the lateral geniculate nucleus, and are highly sensitive to detect color and visual detail
distributed evenly throughout the retina, have larger cell bodies and visual fields, mostly connect to the lateral geniculate nucleus but also connect to other visual areas of the thalamus, and are highly sensitive to overall pattern and moving stimuli
have small cell bodies, found throughout the retina, and connect to lateral geniculate nucleus, other parts of the thalamus, and the superior colliculus.
primary visual cortex (V1)
also known as the striate cortex that receives information from the lateral geniculate nucleus and is responsible for the first stage of visual processing
damage to the V1, an ability to respond to visual stimuli that they report not seeing
secondary visual cortex (V2)
receives information from area V1, processes information further, and sends it other areas
pathway sensitive to shape details
pathway responsible to movement
the most magnocellular visual paths in the temporal cortex and specialized for identifying and recognizing objects
the visual path in the parietal cortex and helps the motor system to find objects and move towards them
damage to the ventral pathway
problems with seeing, recalling visual details
damage to the dorsal pathway
problems seeing motion, distance, and recalling spatial information.
the ability to recognize an object's shape despite changes in direction or size
the inability to recognize objects despite satisfactory vision, and caused by damage to the pattern pathway usually in the temporal cortex
the inability to recognize faces and occurs after damage to the fusiform gyrus of the inferior temporal cortex especially in the right hemisphere
middle temporal cortex (MT/V5)
responds to a stimulus moving in a particular direction
medial superior temporal cortex (MST)
cells in the dorsal part respond to expansion, contraction or rotation of a visual stimulus
refers to the inability to determine the direction, speed and whether objects are moving, and likely caused by damage in area MT. sometimes cannot describe vision but can grab for a moving object
refers to our sense of hearing and depends on our ability to detect sound waves.
refers to the height and subsequent intensity of the sound wave
refers to the perception of the sound wave and related to amplitude but not chemical to it
refers to the number of compressions per second, measured in hertz, and related to pitch of a sound
A tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency.
includes the pinna
contains the tympanic membrane (ear drum which vibrates at the same rate when struck by sound waves).
membrane in the inner ear that collects sound waves and translates them into fluid movement in the cochlea.
transmits waves through the viscous fluid of the inner ear
contains a snail shaped structure called the cochlea
auditory receptors that lie between the basilar membrane and the tectorial membrane in the cochlea
each area along the basilar membrane has hair cells sensitive to only one specific frequency of sound wave.
problem is that parts of the basilar membrane bound together too tightly for 1 part to resonate
the basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with the sound and causes auditory nerve axons to produce action potentials at the same frequency
current pitch theory
Low frequency sounds best explained by the frequency theory. High frequency sounds best explained by place theory
auditory nerve as a whole produces volleys of impulses (for sounds up to about to 4000Hz), no individual axon solely approaches that frequency, requires auditory cells to precisely time their responses
people cannot hum a tune
primary auditory cortex (A1)
destination for most information from the auditory system, and located in the superior temporal cortex.
anterior temporal cortex
posterior temporal cortex and parietal cortex; visual motion of sounds, and damage leads to motion deaf
cells in the primary auditory cortex are more responsive to preferred tone
the structure of the flesh and cartilage attached to each side of the head, and is responsible for altering the reflection of sound waves into the middle ear from the outer ear and helping to locate source of a sound
contains 3 fluid-filled tunnels (scala vestibule, scala media, and the scala tympani).
conductive/middle ear deafness
occurs if bones of the middle ear fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea, caused by disease, infections, or tumorous bone growth, and can be temporary
nerve/inner ear deafness
results from damage to the cochlea, the hair cells, or the auditory nerve. can vary in degree, can be confined to one part of the cochlea, can be inherited or caused by prenatal problems or early childhood disorders
frequent or constant ringing in the ears and experienced by many people with nerve deafness
created by high frequency sounds (2000 to 3000Hz), making the sound louder for the closer ear: wavelength shorter than width of head
time of arrival
difference between the two ears is most useful for localizing sounds with sudden onset
provides cues to sound location for localizing sounds with frequencies up to 1500Hz. reaches both ears at same time-directly in front
refers to the system that detects the position and the movement of the head, directs compensatory movements of the eye and helps maintain balance, the organ is adjacent to the cochlea
~refers to the sensation of the body and its movement.
~includes discriminative touch (shape of an object), deep pressure, cold, warmth, pain, itch, tickle and the position and movement of the joints.
~stimulation of a touch receptor opens sodium channels to trigger an action potential
refers to the skin area connected to or innervated by a single sensory spinal nerve
The vestibular sensation
Other body sensations
Respond to pressure, bending, or other distortions of a receptor
consists of the saccule and utricle, and 3 semicircular canals
filled with a jellylike substance that pushes against hair cells, activates them when the head moves
is the experience evoked by a harmful stimulus, directs our attention (prefrontal cortex), and holds it.
axons carrying pain
~have little or no myelin, slower transmission.
~thicker axons convey sharp pain; thinner axons convey duller pain
results in the increased intensity of pain
systems that are sensitive to opiate drugs and similar chemicals
periaqueductal gray matter
rich in enkephalin synapses; release is blocked from opiate receptors being activated
group of chemicals that attach to the same brain receptors as morphine
was an attempt to explain why some have more pain than others with the same injury, and suggests that the spinal cord areas that receive messages from pain receptors also receive input from other skin receptors and from axons descending from the pain
a drug or other procedure with no pharmacological effect, and decrease pain reception by decreasing the brain's emotional response to pain perception and not the sensation itself
worsen pain by increasing anxiety
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