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Terms in this set (231)
How is the central nervous system healed?
Astrocytic proliferation (astrocyte glial scar)
-no regeneration or fibroblasts (no fibrosis)
What are the cells that characterize repair in the CNS?
What are the cells that characterize repair in other tissues?
Fibroblasts (in CNS fibroblasts only around blood vessels)
Suffix to indicate liquefaction of the neural tissue
Suffix to indicate inflammation
Prefix to indicate a lesion of the meninges
Prefix to indicate a lesion of the brain
Prefix to indicate a lesion of the spinal cord
Prefix to indicate a lesion of the peripheral nerves
Prefix to indicate a lesion in the white matter
Prefix to indicate a lesion in the gray matter
What word means arachnoid & pia mater?
What word means dura mater?
What is the inflammation of the meninges & brain?
What is the liquefaction necrosis of spinal cord?
What is the inflammation of the brain?
What is the inflammation of the grey matter of the brain?
What is malacia (necrosis) of grey matter of brain?
What is important in horses & is the necrosis of white matter?
What is the inflammation of the root of nerve along the spinal cord?
What is the inflammation of multiple roots of nerves along the spinal cord?
What is the fiber portion of gray matter amongst the neurons? ("Stars")
What is the color that characterizes dead ischemic neurons?
Red or eosinophilic (H&E stain)
What do blue neurons mean?
Postmortem manipulation of the brain during necropsy
What is the equine disease induced & discovered by Dr. Theiler characterized by severe brain edema & Alzheimer type 2 cells?
Theiler's Disease- "Serum" hepatitis
What color & where are the inclusion bodies of Rabies?
What color & where are the inclusion bodies of Herpes virus?
What color & where are the inclusion bodies of Adenovirus?
What color & where are the inclusion bodies of Canine Distemper Virus?
Nucleus & cytoplasm
What color & where are the inclusion bodies of EMND (equine motor neuron disease) in horses?
What are the causes of EMND (equine motor neuron disease) in horses?
Vitamin E responsive disease
-lack of vitamin E (lack of green forage)
What are the basic cellular reactions of Astrocytes to injury?
Alzheimer type II cells
If you have a brain & see a group of astrocytes characterized by swelling nucleus & gathered together, what type of cells are they & what do they indicate?
Alzheimer type II cells
Indicate Brian edema
Often times, what is brain edema & the presence of Alzheimer type II cells due to?
Severe liver disease & consequent hyperammonemia
Can you see brain edema without a microscope?
Only when there is Cerebellar herniation
What is an alteration of the central nervous tissue in the form of a spongy loosening, pre-senting a 3D network of fibrillating tissue constituents & appearing as a system of vesicular cavities filled with fluid?
What are hypertrophied astrocytes?
What characterizes gemistocytes (hypertrophied astrocytes)?
A suntan pink homogenous cytoplasm & eccentric nuclei with H&E staining
What are hypertrophied astrocytes characterized by abundant pink homogenous cytoplasm & eccentric nuclei?
Are gemistocytes macrophages?
No, the CNS macrophages are Gitter cells & they are microglial cells
-Gitter cells are foamy visible microglial cells
What are the macrophages of the CNS?
During the astrocyte reactions in injury, what do you call the proliferation of cells?
Proliferation of processes?
Proliferation of both cells & processes?
What are lipid-laden foamy macrophages in an area of liquefactive necrosis?
-they are the CNS macrophages
What do Gitter cells express?
What are the changes that occur in the axon distal to the point of injury? (such as transaction of the nerve)
In the early stages, what is Wallerian Degeneration characterized morphologically by?
Breakdown of the axon & its myelin sheath
What does the reparative stage of Wallerian Degeneration consist of?
Proliferation of Schwann cells within the tube formed by the original schwannian basal lamina
What are the 4 main consequent events of wallerian degeneration?
Schwann cell proliferation
What is the histologically change that characterizes axonopathy the distally?
Are spheroids common in neuropathology?
-torpedoes are NOT
-Spheroids are associated commonly with traumatic & infectious diseases & CNS masses
What are some viral causes of Demyelination?
Ovine visna retrovirus
Mouse hepatitis virus
What are some nutritional/metabolic causes of demyelination?
What are some physical causes of demyelination?
Spinal cord compression
What is the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain ventricles?
-excess fluid increases the size of the ventricles & puts pressure on the brain
-common in dogs, also seen in pigs, much less in other species
-can be an incidental finding
What is the secondary effect of fluid on the brain?
What is one species where hydrocephalus is very common?
What are the most common animals to have hydrocephalus?
DOGS (followed by pigs)
What are some causes for hydrocephalus?
-impaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow
-impaired CSF reabsorption
-excessive CSF production (communicating/non-obstructive & non-communicating/obstructive)
-hydrocephalus ex vacuo
What refers to an enlargement of cerebral ventricles and subarachnoid spaces & is usually due to brain atrophy & post-traumatic brain injuries?
Hydrocephalus ex vacuo (filling a space)
-this is a compensatory enlargement of the CSF spaces in response to loss of brain parenchyma & is not the result of increased CSF pressure
What is a cephalic disorder secondary to encephalomalacia?
What is a neurological disorder of the CNS characterized with cysts or cavities within the cerebral hemisphere?
What is cavitation from Porencephaly originating from?
Malacia in the brain
What is the extreme form of porencephaly?
What is it called when the brain's cerebral hemispheres are absent to varying degrees & the remaining cranial cavity is filled with cerebrospinal fluid?
Hydranencephaly (severe form of porencephaly)
Porencephaly is frequent in ruminant fetuses affected by what?
-BVD, BD, CSF
What causes human echinococcosis?
Larval stages of cestodes (tapeworms) of genus Echinococcus
-intermediate host: sheep, goats, swine, cattle, humans, others
-definitive host: dog
What are some viruses that can cause hydrocephalus & hydranencephaly in bovine?
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVD)- pestivirus
Akabane virus- bunyavirus
Schmallenberg virus- bunyavirus
Blue tongue- orbivirus
What causes cerebellar hypoplasia in cats?
Cat- feline panleukopenia (parvovirus)
Cow- BVD (pestivirus)
SR- border disease (pestivirus)
Pig- classical swine fever (pestivirus)
What is the premature or accelerated degeneration of formed elements, presumably caused by some intrinsic metabolic defect?
What is cerebellar abiotrophy presumably caused by?
Intrinsic metabolic defect
What species are affected by cerebellar abiotrophy?
Full expression of lesion of cerebellar abiotrophy occurs at what age?
What stain is used to see myelin?
What is the cause of swayback & enzootic ataxia?
Copper deficiency in lambs & kid goats
What does copper deficiency affect?
-wool, hair growth & pigmentation
-integrity of connective tissue
Where are the lesions located for congenital swayback?
Where are the lesions located for enzootic ataxia?
Onset of lesions are delayed for up to ___________ after birth.
Up to 6 months
-poorly understood pathogenesis
-chromatolysis & demyelination
An ischemic neuron appears how?
What is cyclopia holoprosencephalic caused by?
Ingestion of False Hellebore (Veratrum californicum) by pregnant ewes on DAY 14
What does ingestion of False Hellebore (Veratrum californicum) by pregnant ewes on day 14 cause?
29: marked shortening of the metacarpals, metatarsal & tibiae
31: tracheal & laryngeal stenosis
-ingestion by pregnant cows between days 12 & 30 of gestation may induce a range of anomalies, including cleft palate, harelip, Brachygnathia, hyper mobility of hock joints, syndactylyl & reduced number of coccygeal vertebrae
-between 30-3 days of gestation, the teratogens selectively inhibit growth in length of metacarpal & metatarsal bones
What is the incomplete closure of raphe, particularly of neural tube & axial skeleton?
In which species is meningocele more common?
-followed by bovine
What is the feline species where spina bifida occurs more frequently?
-from Isle of Man (island between Ireland & England)
What is hydromyelia also known as?
In hydromyelia/syringohydromyelia, the cavity that forms is connected to what?
The 4th ventricle
-normal fluid space in the brain
Syringomyelia is also known as what?
Syringomyelia/syrinx, compared to hydromyelia/syringohydromyelia, features a cavity that does what?
Does NOT communicate with any other fluid spaces
-occurs primarily in adults who have experienced spinal cord trauma
Hydromyelia & Syringomyelia are seen in which dog breeds?
King Charles Spaniels
Deficiency of a specific lysosomal enzyme required for the lysosomal catabolism of a particular metabolite (usually a lipid) is often accompanied by the accumulation of what?
The substrate lipid metabolite (storage disease)
T or F: inhibition of a specific lysosomal enzyme by an exotoxin can result in storage disease
-ex: locoweed poisoning
-swansonine of locoweed is a potent inhibitor of alpha-mannosidase
What plant can inhibit a specific lysosomal enzyme & result in storage disease?
-swansonine is a potent inhibitor of alpha-mannosidase
Lysosomal overload with indigestible material can result in what?
A storage disease
Can you see a lesion with a concussion?
What is a traumatic injury where you don't see a lesion?
What is the result of twisting the brain stem on a longitudinal axis from rotational & axial forces?
-can be from torsion (twists, hanging)
Which of the hemorrhages results from twisting of the brain stem?
Which area of the brain can you diagnose most postmortem viral diseases that go to the brain by PCR?
-West Nile virus & Listeria don't go to the cortex, so the cortex isn't the best option
What can cause ischemic encephalopathy in the feline brain?
Aberrant cerebrospinal migration of Cuterebra following entry into the brain via the nasal cavity
What does the aberrant cerebrospinal migration of Cuterebra following entry into the brain via the nasal cavity cause in felines?
Which blood-brain barrier edema is characterized by the accumulation of fluid intracellularly?
Which blood-brain barrier edema is characterized by accumulation of plasma constituents such as water, ions & plasma proteins into the extracellular space?
Cytotoxic edema vs Vasogenic edema:
Which one occurs particularly in the white matter?
Which one occurs in both gray & white?
What are eosinophils in the brain suggestive of in pigs (& cattle)?
-most likely due to salt poisoning
What kind of cell characterizes brain edema in pigs?
What would you suspect of eosinophils in the brain of other animals, other than pigs?
What is a parasite that affects the brain of horse?
What is a parasite that affects the brain of deer, small ruminants & horses?
What is a parasite that affects the brain of raccoons, humans, rabbits, birds, etc?
What is a parasite that affects the brain of cats?
What is a parasite that affects the spinal cord of deer & cattle?
What is a parasite that affects the lungs of rats to other animals?
What is a parasite that affects the brain of dogs?
Microfilariae (Dirofilaria immitis)
What is a parasite that affects the brain of horses & humans?
What causes lung edema in pigs?
What causes intestinal edema in pigs?
Edema Disease- E.coli shiga toxin 2e
What causes brain edema in pigs?
What causes equine mycotoxic leukoencephalomalacia?
Fumonisin B1 derived from Fusarium verticillioides on moldy corn feed
What is the gross lesion from equine mycotoxic leukoencephalomalacia?
Gross: bilateral/unilateral liquefaction necrosis of the cerebral white matter
Microscopic: varying degree of white matter necrosis & hemorrhages
What inhibits the enzyme ceramide synthase interfering with synthesis of sphingolipids?
What does Fumonisin inhibit that interferes with the synthesis of spingolipids?
Which lesion of equine mycotoxic leukoencephalomalacia is pathognomonic?
Gross lesion- liquefaction necrosis of cerebral white matter
& sometimes the brain stem, spinal cord & grey matter
What is the neurologic disease associated with thiamine deficiency in ruminants?
What is the neurologic disease associated with thiamine deficiency in carnivores?
Thiamine deficiency encephalopathy
In which aged animals does polioencephalomalacia occur?
-cattle: 6-18 months
-sheep: 2-7 months
Potential causes of thiamine deficiency in carnivores?
-thiamine is a dietary requirement
-ingestion of diets in which the vitamin is destroyed by overheating, sulfur or thiaminase (like that in fish diet)
Potential causes of thiamine deficiency in ruminants?
Thiamine is synthesized in the rumen flora
-ingestion of thiaminase-containing rhizomes of broken fern, thiamine analogues, sulfur-containing plants, lack of thiamine-synthesizing microbes & overgrowth of thiaminase-producing microbes
Polioencephalomalacia is a multi factorial metabolic disorder.
What are some other causes for cerebrocortical necrosis?
Pb (lead) toxicity
Lesions for polioencephalomalacia in carnivores pass through the sequence of what?
Where are the most vulnerable areas?
-vacuolation of neuropil
The periventricular lesions of polioencephalomalacia in carnivores are bilaterally symmetrical & are found most consistently in the ________________ & commonly in the _____________.
Vestibular, red & lateral geniculate nuclei
-hemorrhages occur consistently in fatal cases & may be large enough in the PN to be visible grossly
T or F: myocardial degeneration has been described in cats, foxes & dogs from polioencephalomalacia?
What kind of gyrus can be spared in cattle in the case of polioencephalomalacia?
The fluorescence seen in the bovine brain from polioencephalomalacia is seen in which stage of the disease?
What is it called?
What is the most consistent lesion in fatal cases of thiamine deficiency encephalopathy in carnivores?
Bilateral malacia at caudal colliculi
What could be the reason a cat's brain has bilateral malacia at the caudal colliculi?
Polioencephalomalacia due to thiamine deficiency
What are the 2 plants that can cause nigropallidal encephalomalacia in horses?
Yellow star thistle
What is the name of the lesion caused in horses by yellow star thistle & Russian knapweed?
Can you also find a lesion in the brain stem nuclei in addition to the globules pallidus in substantia nigra?
Grazing on yellow star thistle & Russian knapweed for 1 month or longer produces often bilateral, not necessarily symmetrical, necrosis in _______—__ and ___________ in horses?
What is the name of the toxic compound in Russian knapweed able to cause disease in horses?
What is the lesion for equine brain nigropallidal encephalomalacia?
Bilateral & symmetric cavitation in the claustrum/putamen & globus pallidus
What is the cause of focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE)?
Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (epsilon toxin)
-disease of sheep, goats & cattle, but mainly sheep
Porcine spinal cord bilateral poliomyelomalacia is due to what?
-bilateral symmetrical softening & discoloration of ventral horn grey matter
What is vitamin E deficiency seen in?
Horses, zebras (& chickens)
What kind of deficiency do you expect if you have severe cerebellar hemorrhage in a chicken?
What lesion do you see in the brain of a chicken caused by vitamin E deficiency?
Avian nutritional encephalopathy
Striatonigral and cerebello-olivary degeneration occur in which dog breed?
Kerry Blue terrier
What neurologic disease of lambs, kid goats & piglets can be present at birth due to copper deficiency?
What disease can be delayed up to 6 months?
At birth: congenital swayback
@ 6 months: delayed swayback or enzootic ataxia
What are the zoonotic agents that can affect the brain?
West Nile flavivirus
What is the bacteria that can induce CNS bacterial disease in calves?
-neonatal sepsis with abscesses
What are some ubiquitous bacteria that can induce CNS bacterial disease in horses?
-Streptococcus equi equi
-Streptococcus equi zooepidemicus
What are some ubiquitous bacteria that can induce CNS bacterial disease in pigs?
What is the cause of bovine Thrombotic Meningoencephalitis?
Histophilus somni causes what disease in bovine?
What are the lesions associated with bovine thrombotic meningoencephalitis?
-Encephalitis with thrombosis & hemorrhagic necrosis
Lung, Brain & Heart
Where are the inclusion bodies for EHV-1 located?
Age group affected?
In nucleus; NOT in the CNS but in liver, lung & thymus
Fetuses & newborns
What is the cause/agent of Listeriosis?
Where is it found?
-brain stem (NOT cortex)
What are the 3 syndromes associated with listeriosis?
-abortion & placentitis
-sepsis with hepatitis
What is the lesion of listeriosis in the CNS?
What are the 3 forms of listeriosis?
What are the 5 neurotropic viral infections?
Type of virus?
EEE, WEE, VEE- alpha viruses
Pseudorabies/SHV-1 (suid herpesvirus)- herpesvirus
Porcine polioencephalomyelitis- picornavirus
West Nile Fever- flavivirus
Is rabies neurotropic?
What are some endotheliotropic viral infections?
Type of virus?
Infectious Canine Hepatitis- adenovirus
Hog Cholera (Classical Swine Fever)- pestivirus
Malignant Catarrhal Fever/Ovine Herpesvirus 2 & Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 & 2
EHV-1 - herpesvirus
What are some pantropic viral infections?
Type of virus?
Canine distemper- morbillivirus
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/ BHV-1 - herpesvirus
CHV-1 - herpesvirus
What is the key inflammatory cell in the meninges in case of viral infection?
What is the key inflammatory cell in the meninges in case of bacterial infections?
-EEE have neutrophils as well, secondary to neuron necrosis
What is the agent that causes Rabies?
What is the pathognomonic lesion of rabies?
-red inclusion bodies in cytoplasm
What is the diagnostic tool to diagnose rabies?
Fluorescent antibody direct technique (FA)
What is the cause of canine distemper encephalitis?
What is the pathogenesis of viral infection & spread of canine distemper encephalitis?
Systemically (GI, urinary, & respiratory epithelium, as well as the brain)
What are the histopathological changes of canine distemper encephalitis?
-nonsuppurative (no neutrophils) encephalitis
-astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia with variable syncytial cell formation
-reduced numbers of Oligodendroglia
-variable neuronal degeneration
-I/N & I/C inclusion bodies, particularly in astrocytes
What type of virus is West Nile virus?
What are the lesions caused by West Nile virus?
-hemorrhagic poliomyelitis in spinal cord
-also affects brain stem: polio-rhombo-encephalomyelitis
What is the agent/cause of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis?
Juveniles (1-2 yrs)
What is the characteristic lesion of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis?
Asymmetrical leukomyelitis with mineralization at the end
How does Aspergillus reach the brain?
Salmonellosis in horses that affects gut & induces necrosis & kills white cells -> opportunistic fungus develops in the lung -> mycotic pneumonia -> fungus goes to the CNS
What are the 4 pathognomonic yeast able to induce encephalitis?
Name 3 amoebae that like to go to the CNS?
Balamuthia, Naegleria, & Acanthamoeba are Protozoa that can affect the brain of an animal. What type of Protozoa are they?
Mention 1 genus of amoebae that can go to the brain of animals & humans
What does spongiform encephalopathies cause?
What is transmissible spongiform encephalopathies?
-can induce status spongiosus in the brain
-sheep form: scrapie
What is the sheep form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies?
What is the classic lesion for spongiform encephalopathy/Scrapie?
Neuronal cell bodies contain vacuoles (neuronal vacuolation)
Where do you collect samples if you suspect bovine spongiform encephalopathy?
Brain stem, specifically the Obex
What kind of brain sample would you collect to diagnose transmissible spongiform encephalopathy?
What is the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer, white-tailed deer, elk, moose & caribou?
Chronic wasting disease
-no evidence of transmission to humans (so far)
What is the agent of Chronic Wasting Disease?
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
affects wild ungulates, cervids
Collect Obex to diagnose
What is a body metaplasia of dura mater?
What is canine spinal cord dural ossification?
-progressive ossification of dura mater
-can induce compression when ossification is very thick
Cervical stenosis compressive myelopathy is also known as what in horses?
Which horses are affected?
-young horses, TB & STB, fast growing
What happens in cervical stenosis compressive myelopathy?
-dysplasia of vertebral body
-spinal canal is narrow & spinal cord gets compressed
-caudal to compression site get vacuolation (Wallerian degeneration; interruption of fiber from compression)
What is the degeneration of fibers called?
In cervical stenosis myelopathy, a dorsal spinal cord histologic lesion (vacuolation) means what?
Dorsal= lesion is cranial to compression site
Diffuse= lesion on compression site
Ventral= lesion is caudal to compression site
Occipitoatlantoaxial malformation is seen in what?
-hypoplastic axis dens (dysplasia, not right shape & shorter)
What is an other malformation Arabian foals can get (besides occipitoatlantoaxial malformation) that progresses form birth to 6 months old?
What is a differential diagnosis for Protozoal encephalitis in the horse brain?
What is Protozoal Encephalitis in the equine brain induced by?
Induced by Sarcocystis neurona
What is the genus & species of Protozoa shed by opossum that can affect horses & induces encephalomyelitis?
What are 3 agents that may have the same morphology characterized only by molecular testing?
Toxoplasma gondii (cat)
Sarcocystis neurona (horses)
What is the nematode that is free living and reaches the brain of horses and human kidney & eye?
What is a parasite that can affect the CNS of a horse?
What is a reddish worm (nematode) that can be found in the meninges of small ruminants, camelids & horses?
Can be found in the middle of the CNS in other species.
What is the rat lung worm that can affect the CNS of any animal?
What is the raccoon roundworm that can affect the CNS of any animal, but especially humans, birds, and rabbits?
Parasite that can affect the CNS of horses & cattle?
Parasite that can affect the CNS of cats?
What does EHV-1 cause?
Where does it replicate in the CNS?
Replicates in the endothelial cells of CNS (NOT the neurons!)
= endothelial cells -> thrombosis -> whole portion of parenchyma below blood vessels dies (infarct) -> goes to CNS (NOT neuronal tissue)
Is there any vaccination for EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy?
Inclusion bodies seen?
No inclusion bodies in CNS, YES inclusion bodies in newborns & fetuses only within lung, thymus & liver
West Nile virus can induce severe hemorrhages in the spinal cord of horses in the gray matter. What is a non infectious condition that can cause the same gross lesion?
Which is more common?
Post-anesthetic hemorrhagic myelopathy
West Nile VIrus
What does Porcine Selenium Poisoning cause?
-ventral horn gray matter
Equine Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy affects what age horses?
What does it affect?
-affects specific portions of brain & spinal cord (brainstem, thalamus, spinal cord)
-from vitamin E deficiency in young animals
What is the cause of equine motor neuron disease (EMND)?
Vitamin E deficiency (lack of green forage)
What is seen with Equine Motor Neuron Disease?
Which muscles are affected?
Weak horses with legs under the body & weak tail
Ventral motor neuron spinal death denervation atrophy of skeletal muscle
Can you see inclusion bodies with Equine Motor Neuron Disease?
Yes, red inclusion body in neurons without infectious agent/virus
What does equine motor neuron disease affect?
What is the abundant pigment involved?
Affects lower motor neurons
What neoplasia arises from the meninges?
-mainly benign, occasionally malignant
-progressively expands & compresses the neural parenchyma causing focal atrophy
What's the most common brain tumor in cats?
What neoplasia is in the parenchyma & is found in humans in their 30s & 50s?
-indented, invasive, irregular
-grows & expands
-mainly malignant, can be benign
Glioblastoma multiforme is malignant & very aggressive
What neoplasia is within the parenchyma & is benign in dogs?
-comprised of oligodendrocytes
What is the most common brain tumor in dogs?
Choroid plexus papilloma = _________
Choroid plexus carcinoma= _________
Neoplasia of the choroid plexus epithelium
What is the species that always gets a pituitary adenoma with age?
All horses develop pituitary adenomas in the __________
Are pituitary adenocarinomas benign in dogs?
What are some other species (besides horses) that can get pituitary tumors as they age?
European black birds (Turdus merula)
Almost any old horse develops this tumor?
What does it cause/lead to?
Pituitary adenoma of the pars intermedia
-very rarely causes CNS disease
-over production of beta endorphin= unresponsive to pain, docile nature
-compression of hypothalamus= hirsutism, polyphagia, hyperpyrexia
-compression of neurohypophysis & decreased ADH secretion= polyuria
-LAMINITIS, infertility, hyperglycemia also common
-ACTH levels variable
What are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors?
Schwannoma (Schwann cells only)
Neurofibroma (Schwann + fibroblasts + possibly others)
What are malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors?
Is cholesteatoma a neoplasia?
-cholesterol granuloma of the choroid plexus of a horse
What is the composition of a cholesteatoma?
Granuloma with cholesterol
-very common in older equine
-NOT a neoplasm
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