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Terms in this set (109)
Matter that always has exactly the same composition is classified as a ?
In a _____________ mixture, the parts of the mixture are noticeable different from one another.
A material used for electrical wiring would need to have good ?
___________ is a process that could be used to separate dissolved particles from the liquid in a solution.
A solid that forms and separates from a liquid mixtures is a ?
Materials can be classified as solids, liquids, or gases based on whether their shapes and __________ are definite or variable.
If you are using Charles's law to find the volume of a gas at a certain temperatures, the temperature must be expressed in ?
At sea level, water _____ at 100 degrees C.
The subatomic particle that JJ Thomson discovered ahs a ________ charge.
The results of Rutherford's gold foil experiment demonstrated that the _________ occupies a very small amount of the total space inside an atom.
The moving blades of an airplane propeller provide an analogy for the electron ______ model.
When all the electrons in an atom are in orbitals with the lowest possible energy, the atom is in its ________ state.
An atom in which an electron has moved to a higher energy level is in an ?
The pattern of repeating properites of elements revealed in the periodic table is known as the ?
The atomic mass unit (amu) is defined as one-twelfth the mass of a ____ 12 atom.
Metals that grow dull when exposed to air are more _______ than metals that remain shiny.
From the left to right across a period in the periodic table, elements become less ______ and more _______in their properties.
metallic and nonmetallic
Element 3, lithium, has one valence electron, and element 4, beryllium, has two valence electrons. Element 5, boron, has ___ valence electrons.
Reactive elements, such as alkali metals and halogens, are found in nature only as ______.
How do the properties of a compound compare to the properties of the elements it contains?
They are different.
What is viscosity?
Resistance to flowing.
How do changes in temp usually affect the viscosity of a liquid?
Viscosity increases with heat and decreases with cool
Give an example of a physical change that can be reversed and an example that cannot be reversed.
melting ice and cutting hair
Is flammability a physical or chemical property? Why?
Chemical because the composition in the material changes
What kind of change is taking place if you see white mold growing on a strawberry?
Besides solid, liquid, and gas, what are the 2 other states of matter?
Plasma (high temps) and Bose Insine Condisate (low temps)
Explain why boiling water in a large pot on a stove has a temp of 100 degrees C even if it has been boiling for an hour.
Changes from water to a vapor so the temp does not change.
Describe what happens to the arrangement of water molecules as ice melts.
They gain energy to move.
How did the results of JJ Thomson's experiments change how scientists thought about atoms?
Scientists discovered subatomic particles.
If an atom has 32 protons and 38 neutrons, what is the mass number?
70 (32 + 38)
What scientific word comes from a Greek word meaning "uncut"?
Which Greek philosopher first used the word to describe matter?
Most calcium atoms have an atomic number of 20 and a mass number of 40, but some calcium atoms have a mass number of 48. What word could you use to describe these two kinds of calcium atoms?
What can scientists measure to provide evidence that electrons can move from one energy level to another?
energy gained or energy released
What do the whole numbers on the periodic table represent?
The elements silicon (atomic number 14) and chlorine (atomic number 17) are both in Period 3. Which is the more reactive element?
Sulfur is often found in nature as an element, not combined with other elements in a compound. What does this fact tell you about the reactivity of sulfur?
It is not a reactive under normal conditions.
On the periodic table, there are 2 numbers in the block for the element krypton, Kr: 36 and 83.80. What are each of these numbers, and what do they represent?
The first is the atomic number and the other is atomic mass.
Among the alkaline earth metals in Group 2 A, which is more reactive- beryllium (element 4) or strontium (element 38)?
Why is argon gas used instead of air in light bulbs that contain a filament that is heated to glowing?
Argon is less reactive.
Study your essays!!
Didn't have time to put them on here!
You are about to open a container of soy milk but notice that there are instructions to "shake well before serving". The soy milk is most likely a ?
Which is malleable?
gold (not glass, pottery, or ice)
Which has the highest viscosity?
corn syrup (not milk, water, or OJ)
A material that is malleable and contains electricity is most likely ?
What physical properties of nylon and leather make them good materials to use for shoelaces?
durability and flexibility
Filtration can be used to separate mixtures based on ?
the size of their particles
When a physical change in a sample occurs, which does NOT change?
Which is a physical change?
sawing a piece of wood in half
Flammability is a material's ability to burn in the presence of ?
A substance that has high reactivity ?
easily combines chemically with other substances.
Which is a chemical change?
water breaking down into hydrogen and oxygen
Which of the following is a clue of chemical change?
a gas forms when vinegar and baking soda are mixed
Ninety-nine percent of all the matter that can be observed in the universe exists as ?
If you move a substance from one container to another and its volume changes, the substance is a ?
In which of the substances (in the polka dot pictures) are the forces of attraction among the particles so weak that they can be ignored under ordinary conditions?
Forces of attraction limit the motion of particles most in ?
What is the result of a force distributed over an area?
Which factors affect the pressure of an enclosed gas?
Temp, volume, # of particles.
Raising the temperature of a gas will increase its pressure if the volume of the gas ?
and the number of particles are constant.
Which will cause a decrease in gas pressure in a closed container?
lowering the temperature
If the volume of a cylinder is reduced from 4.0 liters to 2.0 liters, the pressure of the gas in the cylinder will change from 100 kilopascals to ?
At a temp of 274 K, the gas in a cylinder has a volume of 4.0 liters. If the volume of the gas is decreased to 2.0 liters, what must the temperature be for the gas pressure to remain constant?
Temp can be used to recognize a phase change because during the phase change, the temp of the substance ?
does not change
If a solid piece of naphthalene is heated and remains at 80 degrees C until it is completely melted, you know that 80 degrees C is the ?
freezing AND melting point of naphthalene
During what phase change does the arrangement of water molecules become more orderly?
Which about ice melting is true?
Water molecules move from their fixed position.
The phase change in which a substance changes from solid to a liquid is ?
The phase change in which a substance changes from a solid to a gas or vapor without changing to a liquid first is?
The phase change in which a substance changes from a gas directly to a solid is ?
Which phase change is an endothermic change?
Which is an exothermic change?
The Greek philosopher Democritus coined what word for a tiny piece of matter that cannot be divided?
Democritus thought that matter was made of tiny particles ?
that could NOT be divided
Which is NOT a part of John Dalton's atomic theory?
Atoms contain subatomic particles.
Which of the following most accurately represents John Dalton's model of the atom?
a tiny, solid sphere which predictable mass for a given element
Looking at the diagram of Rutherford's gold foil experiment, what caused the alpha particles to bounce straight back from the gold foil?
nuclei in the gold atoms
Who provided evidence for the existence of a nucleus in an atom?
In an atomic model that includes a nucleus, positive charge is?
concentrated in the center of an atom
Which subatomic particle has a negative charge?
Which statement about subatomic particles is true?
An electron has far less mass than either a protron or neutron
Which is unique for any given element?
the number of protons
To find the number of neutrons in an atom, you would subtract what?
atomic number from the mass number
Suppose an atom has a mass number of 35. Which statement is true?
The number of protons in the nucleus does not equal the number of neutrons.
Which is true about oxygen 17 and oxygen 18?
They are isotopes of oxygen
What can you assume has happened if an electron moves to a higher energy level?
The electron has gained energy
Which represents the arrangement of electrons in Bohr's atomic model?
Electrons travel around the nucleus in fixed energy levels with energies that vary from level to level.
What does the electron cloud model describe?
the most likely locations of electrons in atoms.
Which provides the best analogy for an electron in an atomic orbital?
a bee buzzing inside a closed jar.
Mendeleev arranged the known chemical elements in a table according to increasing?
In a periodic table, a set of properties repeats from?
row to row
Mendeleev gave the name eka-aluminum to an ?
unknown element he predicted would have properties similar to those of aluminum
The usefulness of Mendeleev's periodic table was confirmed by ?
the discovery of elements with predicted properties
In the figure with a blank periodic table, identify the segments labeled A and B.
A is a period and B is a group.
Moving from left to right across a row of the periodic table, which values increases by exactly one from element to element?
One-twelfth the mass of a carbon 12 atom is used to define an?
atomic mass unit
How is the atomic mass of an element determined?
Take a weighted average of the masses of the isotopes present in nature.
Which is true about the metalloid silicon?
It is a better conductor of an electric current than sulfur is.
At room temp, none of the metals are?
Which general statement does NOT apply to metals?
Most metals are brittle
THe column on the far left of the periodic table contains the ?
most reactive metals
Atoms of the most reactive elements tend to have ?
one or seven valence electrons
As you move from left to right across a period, the number of valence electrons ?
An alkali metal has one valence electron, while an alkaline earth metal has ?
Which halogen is most likely to react?
Which gases emit colors when an electric current is applied?
helium and neon
To keep them from reacting, some highly reactive elements are stored in ?
Which element is found in nature only in compounds?
Which element is found in most of the compounds your body except for water?
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