HPUSH Chapter 10 Mr. ebbe

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Dorr War
Rhode Island had property qualifications for voting in 1841.
Because propertyless wage earners (e.g., factory workers) could not vote, the state's labor movement pushed for reform at the People's Convention (October 1841).
This extralegal convention adopted a new state constitution that enfranchised all white men.
Reformers inaugurated Thomas Dorr as governor.
President Tyler sent in federal troops and the Dorr movement collapsed.
Property and Democracy
By 1860, all but one state had eliminated property requirements for voting.
Tocqueville on Democracy
By 1840, more than 90 percent of adult white men were eligible to vote.
Democratic political institutions came to define the nation's sense of its own identity.
Tocqueville identified democracy as an essential attribute of American freedom.
The Information Revolution
Steam power helped the proliferation of the penny press.
Reduction in printing costs also resulted in alternative newspapers.
The Limits of Democracy
The "principle of universal suffrage" meant that "white males of age constituted the political nation."
How could the word "universal" be reconciled with barring blacks and women from political participation?
A Racial Democracy
Despite increased democracy in America, blacks were seen as a group apart.
Blacks were often portrayed as stereotypes.
Blacks were not allowed to vote in most states.
In effect, race had replaced class as the boundary that separated those American men who were entitled to enjoy political freedom from those who were not.
The American System
A new manufacturing sector emerged from the War of 1812, and many believed that it was a necessary complement to the agricultural sector for national growth.
In 1815, President James Madison put forward a blueprint for government-promoted economic development that came to be known as the American System.
New national bank
Federal financing for better roads and canals ("internal improvements")
President Madison became convinced that allowing the national government to exercise powers not mentioned in the Constitution would prove dangerous to individual liberty and southern interests.
Banks and Money
The Second Bank of the United States was a profit-making corporation that served the government.
Local banks promoted economic growth.
The Bank of the United States was supposed to prevent the overissuance of money
The Panic of 1819
The Bank of the United States participated in a speculative fever that swept the country after the War of 1812 ended.
Early in 1819, as European demand for American farm products returned to normal levels, the economic bubble burst.
The Panic of 1819 disrupted the political harmony of the previous years.
Americans continued to distrust banks.
The Supreme Court ruled in McCulloch v. Maryland that the Bank of the United States was constitutional.
The Missouri Controversy
James Monroe's two terms as president were characterized by the absence of two-party competition ("The Era of Good Feelings").
The absence of political party disputes was replaced by sectional disputes.
Missouri petitioned for statehood in 1819.
Debate arose over slavery.
The Missouri Compromise was adopted by Congress in 1820.
Missouri was admitted to the Union as a slave state and, to maintain sectional balance, Maine was admitted as a free state.
Congress prohibited slavery north of the 36° 30' latitude in remaining Louisiana Purchase territory.
The Missouri debate highlighted that the westward expansion of slavery was a passionate topic that might prove to be hazardous to national unity.
The United States and the Latin American Wars of Independence
Between 1810 and 1822, Spain's Latin American colonies rose in rebellion and established a series of independent nations.
In 1822, the Monroe administration became the first government to extend diplomatic recognition to the new Latin American republics.
In some ways, Latin American constitutions were more democratic than the U.S. Constitution.
Allowed Indians and free blacks to vote
The Monroe Doctrine
Fearing that Spain would try to regain its colonies, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams drafted the Monroe Doctrine.
No new European colonization of the New World.
The United States would abstain from European wars.
Europeans should not interfere with new Latin American republics.
The Election of 1824
Andrew Jackson was the only candidate in the 1824 election to have national appeal.
None of the four candidates received a majority of the electoral votes.
The election fell to the House of Representatives.
Henry Clay supported John Quincy Adams.
Clay's "corrupt bargain" gave Adams the White House.
The Nationalism of John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams enjoyed one of the most distinguished prepresidential careers of any American president.
Adams had a clear vision of national greatness.
Supported the American system
Wished to enhance American influence in the Western Hemisphere
"Liberty Is Power"
Adams held a view of federal power far more expansive than most of his contemporaries.
Stated that "liberty is power"
His plans alarmed many.
Martin Van Buren and the Democratic Party
Adams's political rivals emphasized:
Individual liberty
States' rights
Limited government
Martin Van Buren viewed political party competition as a necessary and positive influence to achieve national unity.
The Election of 1828
By 1828, Van Buren had established the political apparatus of the Democratic Party.
Andrew Jackson campaigned against John Quincy Adams in 1828.
A far higher percentage of the eligible electorate voted in 1828 than before, and Jackson won a resounding victory.
The Party System
Politics had become a spectacle.
Party machines emerged.
Spoils system
National conventions chose candidates.
Democrats and Whigs
Democrats and Whigs differed on issues that emerged from the market revolution.
Democrats favored no government intervention in the economy.
Whigs supported government promotion of economic development through the American System.
Public and Private Freedom
The party battles of the Jacksonian era reflected the clash between public and private definitions of American freedom and their relationship to governmental power.
Democrats supported a weak federal government, championing individual and states' rights.
Reduced expenditures
Reduced tariffs
Abolished the national bank
Democrats opposed attempts to impose a unified moral vision on society.
Whigs believed that a strong federal government was necessary to promote liberty.
Whigs argued that government should promote morality to foster the welfare of the people.
South Carolina and Nullification
Jackson's first term was dominated by a battle to uphold the supremacy of federal over state law.
Tariff of 1828
South Carolina led the charge for a weakened federal government in part from fear that a strong federal government might act against slavery.
Calhoun's Political Theory
John C. Calhoun emerged as the leading theorist of nullification.
Exposition and Protest
Because states created the Constitution, each one could prevent the enforcement within its borders of federal laws that exceeded powers specifically spelled out in the Constitution.
Daniel Webster argued that the people, not the states, created the Constitution.
The Nullification Crisis
Jackson considered nullification an act of disunion.
When South Carolina nullified the tariff in 1832, Jackson responded with the Force Bill.
A compromise tariff (1833) resolved the crisis.
Calhoun left the Democratic Party for the Whigs.
Indian Removal
The expansion of cotton and slavery led to forced relocation of Indians.
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Five Civilized Tribes
The law marked a repudiation of the Jeffersonian idea that civilized Indians could be assimilated into the American population.
The Supreme Court and the Indians
The Cherokees went to court to protect their rights.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Worcester v. Georgia
John Ross led Cherokee resistance.
Trail of Tears
The Seminoles fought a war against removal (1835-1842).
Biddle's Bank
The Bank of the United States symbolized the hopes and fears inspired by the market revolution.
Jackson distrusted bankers as "nonproducers."
The Bank, under its president Nicholas Biddle, wielded great power.
Using language resonating with popular values, Jackson vetoed a bill to renew the Bank's charter.
Pet Banks, the Economy, and the Panic of 1837
Jackson authorized the removal of federal funds from the vaults of the national bank and their deposit in state or "pet" banks.
Partly because the Bank of the United States had lost the ability to regulate the currency effectively, prices rose dramatically while real wages declined.
By 1836, the American government and the Bank of England required gold or silver for payments.
With cotton exports declining, the United States suffered a panic in 1837 and a depression until 1843.
Van Buren in Office
Martin Van Buren approved the Independent Treasury to deal with the crisis.
The Election of 1840
The Whigs nominated William Henry Harrison in 1840.
Harrison was promoted as the "log cabin" candidate.
His running mate was John Tyler.
Selling candidates in campaigns was as important as the platform for which they stood.
Harrison died a month after taking office.
Tyler vetoed measures to enact the American System.