Eye & Ear Disorders

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Function of rods vs. cones?
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Terms in this set (31)
In ________, irregular curvature of the cornea leads to images being focused on 2 different placesastigmatismPatients with open-angle glaucoma experience what kind of vision loss?loss of peripheral vision ; retain central visual field "tunnel vision"What is the structural difference between open-angle and closed-angle glaucoma?As the name suggests, in open-angle, the iridocorneal angle is NOT obstructed. In closed-angle, this area IS acutely obstructed and fluid becomes trapped behind the lens. The obstruction may be caused by inflammation, a tumor, medication, or other etiologies.Name the 3 pharmacological interventions used to treat open-angle glaucoma.(1) miotic meds - ciliary muscles pull on meshwork in such a way that it allows aqueous humor to drain, ↓ IOP (2) carbonic anhydrase inhibitors - ↓ aqueous production (e.g. dorzolamide) (3) beta blockers - ↓ aqueous production (e.g. timolol)Tx for closed-angle glaucoma?Mannitol to ↓ IOP transiently, then iridectomy (remove part of iris to allow drainage)Carbonic anydrase inhibitor side effects?GI upset & diuresisRedness, swelling, and purulent drainage from the eye suggests _____.bacterial conjunctivitisWhat kind of vision loss is associated with macular degeneration?Loss of central vision; peripheral vision is preservedWhat pathogens are commonly implicated in otitis media?respiratory bugs like Strep pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzaeWhat is common antibiotic therapy for otitis media?*Amoxicillin* if allergic to penicillin, use cefdinir if the infection is refractory (not responding to treatment), try a round of ceftriaxoneWhich cranial nerve transmits electrical signals to be interpreted as sound?CNVIII - vestibulocochlear nerveDefine Meniere's triad(1) tinnitus (2) vertigo (3) unilateral sensorineural hearing lossIn ______, fluid build-up in the inner ear distorts proprioceptionMeniere's diseaseIn _______, pathology of sensory fibers in the inner ear leads to irreversible hearing loss.sensorineural hearing lossWhen you perform a Weber test with a tuning fork, what can you expect from the ear affected by conductive hearing loss?The ear impaired by conductive hearing loss will hear the sound MORE clearly. In contrast, an ear impaired by sensorineural hearing loss will hear poorly (compared to the other functioning ear)What is strabismus?crossed eyes, due to neuromuscular injury or congenital anomalyTreatment / interventions for Meniere's disease includes:~antihistamines/anti-emetics for attacks ~sodium & fluid restrictions ~smoking cessation ~ ↓ alcohol consumption ~ ↓ stress ~vestibular rehabWhat is presbycusis?age-related irreversible degenerative changes of the inner ear that lead to decreased hearing ability; results in ↓ response to high-frequency sounds; low-pitched tones are heard more easilyAfter eye surgery, it's important to avoid increases in IOP. What should you educate your patient to do/not to do?*no bending* open-mouth coughing/sneezing DON'T lay flat - elevate HOB 30-45 degrees no heavy lifting or straining (stool softeners!) no eye rubbingInjury to which cranial nerve can cause ptosis (eyelid drooping)?cranial nerve III - oculomotor nervePatients with glaucoma should avoid what class of medications?anticholinergics → increase IOP