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Vast Early America/American Revolution Era
Terms in this set (20)
How do objects represent and tell the history of a particular group of people or culture?
Objects can have pictures or symbols that represent a culture's religion, language, dress, infrastructure, jobs, etc. Examples: coins typically have the face of a leader or important monument. They can hint at religion or values of that community. Some paintings can depict certain scenes from history -- wars or eras showing the aforementioned qualities. which gives insight into that time period.
What is Vast Early America?
A time period from mid 1500s to mid 1700s when Europeans were migrating and trying to colonize and settle amongst NAs.
What was life like for NA in this period?
It is during this time that they dominate; they outnumber the Europeans. They have a complex and thriving social and economic systems that the Euros know nothing about. They start to decline after 1750.
Why does this time period matter?
It set the stage for future colonizations. The European powers competed w/each other in places like America to expand economic and governmental power. This led to the foundation to the American Rev. era.
How did the British empire operate in VEA (interaction w/NAs, goals, etc.)
More focused on agriculture. Traded guns w/NAs. Mostly friendly
How did the French empire operate in VEA (interaction w/NAs, goals, etc.)
Wanted to expand their empire. Looking for NW Passage. Friendly and peaceful w/NAs, but still feared them. Built more trading posts.
How did the Spanish empire operate in VEA (interaction w/NAs, goals, etc.)
Wanted to create a buffer. Were the harshest towards NAs; beat and enslaved them, forced them to convert to Christianity. Eventually allied w/NAs to get help defending their area (post Pueblo Revolt)
Similarities/Differences between Spanish and British Empire
Sim.: Both traded w/NAs. Wanted to settle to some extent. Engaged in wars among themselves and NAs. Tried to convert the NAs. Had governments ruled by a monarch.
Dif.: Spanish involved in Pueblo Revolt. British traded guns. Spanish forced Christianity upon NA harshly -- punished them if they were found practicing other religions. British more focused on agriculture.
How was NA were affected by trade and contact w/European powers
Got horses and diseases. Mixed Christianity w/their original beliefs and values. Got a lot of new tools (pots, pans, some guns). Lost a lot of land, their population decreased. Had wars amongst themselves and Europeans.
Explain the concept of the Middle Ground, how it operated, and who was involved.
MG was mainly between the French and NAs. The French were viewed as a "father", though both sides had a different view of that word. The French saw themselves as more of a kind father figure; they thought they controlled/were the only ones engaged in the trade with the NAs, until the figured the NAs were trading w/other people and groups. Then there had to be a MG between all of these groups to establish a fruitful and successful relationship.
Describe what life was like for the following groups
Slaves, men, elite gentry, women. https://docs.google.com/document/d/1jqv_dGZr-nE_AdjOM4UT26hNlVRlBmLn2bJlgE9gGbI/edit - see q.6
Act passed by parliament in hopes to get more money to pay off debt from the 7 years war. Taxed paper goods. Bad b/c most everything required paper; newspapers, legal docs, etc.
Townshend Acts/Boston Massacre
Townshend: a series of Acts passed, similar to previously passed acts. Similar to Quartering Act, and another including a search warrant British soldiers could search house for smuggled goods. Colonists were outraged by British attempt to assert power over them so a group of colonists decided to protest in front of a troop of soldiers. Some threw rocks and sticks at soldiers. Frightened a british soldier, he fired into the crowd. killed 5 colonists. Led to the Sons and Daughters of Liberty and the Boycott of British Goods.
Patrick Henry and John Locke
Henry (give me liberty or give me death). He followed similar philosophies to that of John Locke, an enlightenment philosopher. He believed that the people should be free, and if they couldn't be, it was not a life worth living.
Taxation w/out representation
The colonists were upset w/Parliament b/c they were being taxed and yet they had no reps in Parliament.
Who were the loyalists in the colonies? Why?
Only about 15-20% of colonists were loyal. Feared unknown, loss of land, loss of a stable economy, believed they were doing fine under British rule. Most were wealthy or part of Anglican church.
What other groups had a stake in the decision for American Independence.
People who were for the revolution and joined the army were most likely poor land owners b/c they did not have much to lose -- if they joined and won, they were promised land, money, and other benefits. If they lost, they either died (in war) or went back to being poor. Low stakes, high reward. Most rich landowners were not in support of it b/c it was high stakes high reward - didn't like high stakes.
How did diseases play a role in Continental Army?
More soliders died form disease than from battle. (1:9 ratio -- every 1 solider died in battle, 9 died from disease). Poor hygiene contributed to spread of disease worse and more common.
What diseases did they suffer from?
smallpox, measles, mumps, influenza, and dysentery.
Other strengths/weaknesses in the Continental Army?
Strengths: led by G. Washington. He knew when to retreat, stood by his soldiers -- didn't separate himself from his troops-- had smallpox when he was younger so he was better immune to it when it was going around the troops. Never accepted payment for leading troops.
Weakness: Lack of provisions. Most soldiers came barefoot, many lacking a change of clothes. Difficulty with procuring a blanket. Daily life difficult; digging latrines, carrying 45 lb sacks around all day. Rationed food. Most soldiers unexperienced and untrained. Weapons were brought from home. Colonial govts were not working together which made securing supplies and provisions even harder.
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