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Microbiology Module 1
Terms in this set (101)
First observed living microorganisms
Observed cork using a microscope
Sought to disprove spontaneous generation theory by placing decaying meat in flasks
Boiling water with seeds
Microorganisms found on dust because broth remained sterile in absence of dust
Fermentation from yeast or bacteria
Polarization of light related to crystals
Surgeon performing first aseptic surgery with phenol solution
1)The causative agent of disease must be present in all cases of disease and must be absent from healthy animals
2)The agent of disease can be isolated from the diseased animal and can be grown in pure culture
3)The disease can be produced by inoculating a portion of the pure culture into healthy animals
4)The agent of disease can be re-isolated from infected animal
Petri dish design
Developed by charles chamberland
Has extremely small pores and led to discovery of viruses
Performed clinical trial on 8 year old using cowpox to immunize for small pox
A substance that stimulates production of antibodies
e.g. toxins, bacteria, foreign blood cells, and cells of transplanted organs
Discovered salvarsan was effective antibiotic against syphilis
Accidentally discovered penicillin
What microorganisms are prokaryotic?
What microorganisms are eukaryotic?
Fungi and parasites
Chain of circles
Pair of circles
cube of circles
cluster of circles
rigid, helical shaped, and needs flagella
Flexible, corkscrew shaped, doesn't need flagella
Prokaryotic alternative to cholesterol
Percentage of peripheral proteins
Percentage of integral proteins
Insoluble in aqueous solution once free of lipids
May have carbohydrates attached
May move laterally along membrane
Functions of plasma membrane
Holds in cytoplasm
Selectively permeable barrier
Location of crucial metabolic processes
Contains receptor molecules for bacterial detection and chemical responses
Contains active transport systems
cell membrane, cell wall, and outer membrane (if present)
Pili are found on what type of bacteria?
Gram negative bacteria
What is flagella made of in prokaryotes?
Four arrangements of flagella
How many genes are involved in flagella synthesis?
How many genes are required for flagellin?
How many genes are used for hook and basal body proteins
More than 10
What is the rate of flagellar movement
2^90 micrometers per second
What two movements does the flagella cause bacteria to do?
Tumble and run
What gives spirochetes their ability to move?
What is the glycocalyx composed of?
Polysaccharides and/or polypeptides
Term for tightly attached glycocalyx to cell wall
Function of capsule
Processes in gram positive/negative differentiation
Counter stain with safranin
What color are gram positive/negative bacteria after treatment?
Thick peptidoglycan layer
Thin peptidoglycan layer in periplasmic space
How thick is a gram positive peptidoglycan layer?
20-80 nm thick
What is teichoic acid composed of?
Polymers of glycerol or ribitol joined by phosphate groups with amino acids or sugars attached to glycerol or ribitol
Teichoic acid attached to peptidoglycan
Teichoic acid attached to plasma membrane
Charge of gram+ bacteria
How thick is a gram negative peptidoglycan layer
where is the peptidoglycan layer of gram negative bacteria found?
In periplasmic space
Which direction of movement causes cell to move forward
Which direction of movement causes cell to tumble
amino acids not found in proteins
What joins the peptidoglycan layer in gram -?
What joins the peptidoglycan layer in gram +?
When does sporulation begin?
When growth ceases
How long can spores survive boiling?
More than an hour
How hot must material be to kill spores?
121.5 C in autoclave at 15 psi for 15 minutes
Stages of Sporulation
0) DNA replicated
1) Axial filament of nuclear material forms making
2) Cell membrane encloses part of axial nucleoid producing
3) Second membrane engulfs spore
4) cortex accumulates
5) Protein coat formed around cortex
6) Spore matures
7) Lysis of cell
What is the spore cortex made of?
Ca++ and dipicolinic acid
located close to end of bacilli
Organic inclusion bodies
Where are carboxysomes found?
Found in cyanobacteria, nitrifying bacteria, and thiobacilli
Where are gas vacuoles found?
Purple/green photosynthetic bacteria
Aquatic forms (buoyant)
stain red or blue when dyed
Helps bacteria orient themselves to the earth's magnetic field
S (Ribosome units)
How many S is a prokaryotic ribosome?
Small subunit of prokaryotic ribosome?
(16S rRNA and 21 polypeptide chains)
Large subunit of rRNA
(5S rRNA, 23S rRNA, 34S polypetide chains)
Helper proteins aiding in folding of polypeptides
Primitive nucleus made of DNA, RNA, and protein
Are plasmids inherited?
Carry resistance genes to antibiotics and heavy metals (Superbugs)
Changes due to matrix activity (70-85% H2O
What is cytoskeleton composed of?
Microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments
Stack of 4-8 cisternae
set of sacs in golgi apparatus
Function of golgi apparatus
modification, packaging, and secretion of material
Non-lysosomal protein degredations system
leftover of the food vacuoles with undigested materials
Large eukaryotic ribosome subunit
Small eukaryotic ribosome subunit
How do mitochondria reproduce
Site of tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport, and oxidative phosphorylation
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