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54 terms

Unit Four World Wars

Unit Four World Wars - No Test, On final exam Created May 20th Final Exam May 25th
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Blitzkrieg
Ger. lightning warfare, motorized/corrdinated assault using speed as the key
Heinz Guderian
British; father of Blitzkrieg warfare tactics
Invasion of Poland
Case White - Ger. radio blames Polish troops crossed the border, Ger. moves into Poland
Moltov-Ribbentrop Pact
Treaty b/w Russia and Germany, agreed to split invasion of Poland, broken when Germany begins invasion of Russia
Phony War
In the beginning of WWII, no countries in Europe launched any major, significant battles or attacks
Russo-Finnish War
Finns fight hard but lsoe, overwhelmed by Russia
Invasion of Norway
Ger. wants for ports, Swedish iron, and to protect their Northern flank; either side wanted Norway so the other side couldn't have it; Ger. victory
Invasion of the Low Countries and France
German assault to capture France, ended Phony War, Ger. breaks through Maginot Line and outflanks French, forcing the retreat and evacuation at Dunkirk
Maginot Line
fortifications b/w Switz and Belgium along Ger/French border to protect France
Gamelin Plan
Maurice Gamelin (French Commander in Chief) - move army into Belgium once Ger. attacks; predicts they will attack from the Ardennes
Mers al Kebir
After Germany captured France, a French Navy was in this town, about to be taken over by Germany, until Britain attacked the fleet to prevent it from being taken over
Dunkirk
French soldiers evacuated from Gamelin Plan - outflanked and forced to retreat to Dunkirk where they were transported by boats to England
Vichy French
part of French gov. that allied with the Axis Powers, attacked American forces during Operation Torch of North Africa at Algiers, 7000 casualties
Battle of Britain
German air attack on England, battle took place in air only, first defeat of Nazis
Radar
British advantage over Germany, could know of German planes approaching
Operation Sea Lion
Hitler's plan for the invasion of England, German defeat in the Battle of Britain postponed the operation, and it was never carried out
The Blitz - Bombing of Britain
Organized bombings of Britain by Germany, London was bombed for 76 nights, failure due to British not surrendering, Operation Sea Lion forgotten
Lebrensraum
Hitler's goal of moving into Russ. to provide living space for Ger. people
Tripartite Pact
Mil. alliance b/w Germany, Italy and Japan forming the Axis Powers; Upset Russia, warned USA
Operation Retribution
Hitler assists Italy in Greece - push British out; delays invasion of Russia 5 weeks
Operation Barbarossa
3 million German troops move into Russia: Northern army to Leningrad, Center army to Moscow, Southern army to Stalingrad and Caucasus; plan was to destroy Russian army in 4 months
German Stop Line
From Archangel to the Caspian Sea; Moves Russians east of Ural Mountains
Einstazgruppen
SS Commando Units of Germany brutal to Russian prisoners and civilians; caused Russ soldiers to desert army, in which Stalin gave orders to shoot and kill any deserters; Russian tenacity stemmed throughout the war
Russian Partisans
Russia civilian untis used against Germany dring Operation Barbarossa
Commisar Order
Given to all German soldiers to kill all in Russia - Soviets never signed Geneva Accords = war without rules
Pearl Harbor
Japan attacks, surprise to Allies (radio silence and uncharted sea lanes), easy target b/c Allies ships were moored 2 by 2
Douglas MacArthur
Commander in Phillipines - Japanese invade, USA loses, MacArthur evacuated and later counterattacks; "I will return"
Cash and Carry
US sells supplies to Allies at beginning of WWII - pay up front and not responsible for transport of materials
Destroyer Deal
US "sells" old WWI destroyers to Brit and in treurn receives naval bases
Lend Lease Act
US leases mil. equipment to Allies
Bataan Death March
Phillipines taken by Japan, US soldiers walk 100mi to prisoner camp
Battle of Midway
Pressure/Threat to USA - close to Pearl Harbor, US cracks Japanese JN-25 code and know of plans, Japan bombs Midway - failure, USA attacks 1st wave failure, 2nd wave sinks 3 carriers and later one more
Erwin Rommel
Command in Germany in North Africa, pushes back British 500mi to Egypt, later runs into supply issues and loses
Second Battle of El-Alamein
Bernard Law Montgomery attacked Germany at EA, British overwhelmed Germany, who wasn't resupplied, Rommel retreats to Libya
Operation Torch
Churchill pushes for North Africa battle, while USA wants an invasion of Europe; displayed Brit. colonialism; Eisenhower and Patton push for Europe, but give in
George Patton
takes Siciliy and afterwards begins inavasion of Italy
Invasion of Italy
Ater American capture Sicily, move into Italy, Italians surrender quickly, Germans continue to fight
Battle of Stalingrad
Bitter fighting in the rubble (from firebombing) of Stalingrad - block by block, house by house, room by room; Russian counter offensive successful, Hitler refuses surrender - Von Paulus surrenders in 1943
Freidrich von Paulus
General of Germany in Stalingrad, asked Hitler for surrender who refused, laster surrendered due to supplies run out
Island Hopping Campaign
Am. in the Pacific knocking out Japan - jump from island to island, battle after battle
Guadalcanal
Solomon Islands, take Japanese airstrip (threat to Australia), tough terrain and climate, Am. victory 1st in Pacific (foot in the door)
Marianas
Gave Am. reach for bombing Japan home island w/ B-29's
Iwo Jima
Gave B-29's escort planes, P-51's in the bombing of Japan home island, provided security, 20000 Am. casualties
Firebombing of Japan
From Marianas and Iwo Jima, 51% of Tokyo destroyed
Operation Overlord
Takinf Fortress Europe - invade from England, storm beaches of Normandy, deception and secrecy required, goal to secure port at Cherbourg, D-Day-June 6, 1944
Fuhrer Principle
gave Hitler total control over any German decisons, actions, politics, etc. - overall commander - all orders through him, bad for Germany
Bernard Law Montgomery
British commander in D-Day; pompous and arrogant, took credit for taking town, when Am. actually did
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Overall commader and director of Operation Overlord
Operation Bodyguard
Shadow 1st Army, commanded by Patton, fake to distract Germany from Operation Overlord, inflatable tanks and fake planes, records played for radio traffic, Hitler fooled and believed fake invasion plans
Operation Market-Garden
Paratroopers sent into Holland and Belgium in order to eliminate V-2 rockets and flank out Germany; failed due to bad intelligence (poor Ger. troops were believed to be there), coordination b/w British and Am. troops was shaky, 8000-10000 Brit. paratoopers lost, Eisenhower said it needed to be risked to press Germany
Battle of the Bulge
Last German counterattack, achieved surprise of Allies 3 armies into Holland and Belgium, intially a success, but lost after Patton broke through German lines, 80000 Am. captured, killed, or wounded
Red Ball Express
Allies convoy system created to move through Europe after the invasion of Normandy, mainly dirt roads
Executive Order 9066
President FDR authorized Japanese Am. citizens to be placed in prison camps after Pearl Harborm suspecting of Japanese spies
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Two atomic bombs dropped on these cities, both indiustrial and highly populated, both wiped out, forced Japanese to surrender on August 9, 1945