Unit 6: Learning
Terms in this set (53)
A relatively permanent change in an organisms behavior due to experience
An organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it.
Learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
The view that psychology 1. Should be an objective science that 2. Studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with 1. But not 2.
Unconditioned Response (UR)
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally -- naturally and automatically -- triggers a response.
Conditioned Response (CR)
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS).
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditional stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone (also called second-order-stimulus).
The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive effects.
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.
A type of leaning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.
Law of Effect
Throndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
In operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner Box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking.
An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforces guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
In operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement).
In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.
Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: Negative reinforcement is not punishment).
An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a second reinforcer.
Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs.
Partial (intermittent) Reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement.
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
An event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
A mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
Learning that occurs but it is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem.
A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake.
A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment.
Learning by observing others. Also called social learning.
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
Frontal lobes neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action that may enable imitation and empathy.
Positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.
Something unassociated with the unconditioned stimulus.
Was conditioned by John Watson to fear white animals because of their previous association with a scary loud noise.
Social Learning Theory / Bobo doll experiment-modeling aggression in children.
Psychologist who experimented with dogs; discovered that the presenting of a neutral stimulus just before an unconditioned stimulus results in the neutral stimulus becoming a conditioned stimulus, producing a conditioned response.
Described the concept of "learned helplessness" in his experiment in which dogs were unable to escape a shock in their cage. Later, when they were able to perform a behavior in order to escape the shock, the dogs cowered as if without hope.
Psychologist who, using Thorndike's law of effect, developed a behavioral technology that revealed principles of behavior control; designed the operant chamber
Edward L Thorndike
Discovered the law of effect.
The father of behaviorism - the view that psychology should be an objective science based on observable behavior.
A system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension.
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