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BIO 112 EXAM 1
Terms in this set (50)
____ proposed that life evolves by a process termed natural selection.
Darwin & Wallace
The "____ effect" occurs when a few individuals from a large population colonize an isolated area and form a new population that has ____ genetic variability.
founfer ... les
In artificial selection, ____ determines which individuals produce more offspring
Mortality of human infants is greater for those that are very large or very small at birth. The frequency of infants that are born very large or very small is much less than the frequency of infants of an intermediate birth weight. This indicates that birth weight for human infants is under ____ selection.
Scientists propose that the increased resistance by pests and parasites to the chemicals used by humans to kill them have probably arisen because ____.
individuals with alleles that confer resistance to these chemicals have been more successful in producing offspring than individuals with alleles that do not confer resistance to these chemicals
In sexual selection, ____ determines which individuals produce more offspring.
mate competition and/or mate choice
Which of the following is NOT a requirement for, nor a feature of, natural selection?
environmentally-induced (acquired) traits can be passed on to offspring
Which of the following would produce ADAPTIVE microevolutionary changes in a population?
Structures that are similar between organisms because they are inherited from a common ancestor are termed ____.
The small degree of genetic variability in the present-day cheetah population is probably attributable to ____.
Natural selection that favors one phenotypic extreme for a given trait is referred to as ____ selection.
A population of squirrels is preyed upon by hawks. Very small squirrels can better escape into burrows and avoid hawks. Hawks tend to avoid preying on very large squirrels because they are more difficult to subdue. After many generations, most squirrels in this population are either very small or very large (i.e., squirrels of intermediate size are uncommon). This hypothetical example best fits the concept of ____ selection.
Which of the following indicate(s) that animals such as humans and bats evolved from a common ancestor?
all of the above
A population is ____.
a group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area
The general concept of biological evolution was first proposed by ____.
____ proposed that a major mechanism of evolution was a process termed "inheritance of acquired characteristics."
In natural selection, ____ determines which individuals produce more offspring.
According to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, which of the following would likely lead to a change in a gene pool?
nonrandom (selective) mating in the population
Which of the following has provided clear and abundant evidence that there has been a succession of different organisms on Earth over the past billion years?
the fossil record
A hurricane hits an island and eliminates all but a tiny group of lizards that live on the island. The gene pool of the small surviving population differs from the original larger population. This is an instance of ____.
the bottleneck effect
Microevolution refers to a change in ____.
a population's gene pool
The fossil record indicates that the evolutionary ancestors of whales shared bone features with living ____ animals called ____.
terrestrial ... even-toed ungulates
An adaptation is ____.
a trait that confers a reproductive advantage for the individual that possesses it
Which of the following is a TRUE statement concerning Charles Darwin?
According to the hypothesis of natural selection, which of the following most accurately measures an individual's fitness?
how many fertile offspring it produces
____ structures arise because of convergent evolution of different types of organisms to similar evolutionary pressures.
The phrase "appearance of evolutionary novelties that define higher taxonomic groups" best applies to the concept of ____.
A ____ group includes an ancestor and all of its descendants.
Three living species (X, Y and Z) share a common ancestor (T), as do two extinct species (U and V). A grouping of species T, X, Y and Z make up a ____.
The biological species concept is NOT useful for organisms known only from fossils because ____.
it is not possible to test reproductive isolation of fossil forms
In a comparison of birds and mammals, having four appendages is ____.
A shared ancestral character for both groups
Bird guides once listed the myrtle warbler and Audubon's warbler as distinct species. Recently, these birds have been classified as eastern and western forms of a single species, the yellow-rumped warbler. Which of the following pieces of evidence, if true, would be cause for this reclassification?
The two forms are observed to interbreed successfully where their habitats overlap.
Which one of the following conditions is necessary for speciation to occur?
____ structures indicate shared (common) ancestry.
Mass extinctions about 540 million years ago separate the ____ eras.
Precambrian & Paleozoic
Males of different species of the fruit fly Drosophila live in the same parts of the Hawaiian islands and breed year round. However the species do not interbreed because they have different elaborate courtship rituals that involve fighting other males and stylized movements that attract females. What type of reproductive isolation does this represent?
Evolutionary change where adults retain juvenile features.
The oldest fossils of single-celled eukaryotic organisms date to about ____ million years ago.
Lake Malawi, in the African Rift Valley, is home to more than a hundred species of cichlid fishes, each with different diets and habits. All these species probably evolved in Lake Malawi from a common ancestor, making them a good example of ____.
Similarities between the Sugar glider (a marsupial mammal) and the Flying squirrel (eutherian mammal), such as flaps of skin between their forelimbs and hindlimbs, are ____ structures.
Gene flow via reproduction can readily occur among ____.
populations of a species
Which of the following may have been important for major evolutionary changes in organisms during the history of life on earth?
All of the above
The fossil record indicates that the first life on Earth evolved approximately ____ million years ago.
____ speciation occurs without geographic separation of populations.
Which of the following lists taxonomic groups from least inclusive (contain fewer species) to more inclusive (contain more species).
family, order, phylum
Which of the following is an example of a postzygotic reproductive barrier?
Hybrid offspring from two species are not fertile.
If humans and pandas belong to the same class, then they must also belong to the same ____.
If you were using cladistic analysis to build a phylogenetic tree of animal groups (phyla), which of the following would make the best outgroup?
Fungus (e.g., mushrooms)
The fossil record indicates that first fish, amphibians and reptiles evolved in the ____ era.
____ is best defined as the proposed evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms.
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