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CRIM 111 EXAM STUDY
Section A, B, and C
Terms in this set (39)
What is the 'collective sentiments' of society and what reveals it ?
Crime reveals a general morality of society, what they define as good or bad, and what they are prepared to accept. (Sociological Positivism)
A genetic throwback to an earlier period of evolution. Links in with and supports Lombroso's 'born criminal'
What is the legal definition of crime ?
The 'Black Letter Law Approach': Crime is what the law defines it as
What is the political definition of crime ?
A definition of human conduct created by authorised agents in politically organised societies
What is the sociological definition of crime ?
Crime is behaviour that violates social norms, including criminal law
List the 3 ways of defining crime
What is the 'dark' figure of crime ?
Crime that is unreported or undetected by police, amount of crime that is known
What is the 'grey' of crime ?
When crime is unreported or misrecorded by police,
List 4 punishments of crime
List the four elements of newsworthiness
- Bad news/Violence: Mass murder
- Extraordinainess: Weird
- Status and Personalization: Celebrity involvement
- Dramatic tension: Emotional response, e.g. Child abuse
List 2 basic outcomes of moral panic
- Simply disappears
- Leaves an INSTITUTIONAL LEGACY: new laws, agencies, groups and social movements
What is the 'gender ratio problem' ?
Differences in offending between males and females, approx 4:1
What is the Criminological Cinderella ?
Gender is neglected and marginalised, gender bias sees woman as less criminally threatening than males
What are the three feminist inspired approaches
- Differential socialization
- Differential social control
- Differential opportunity
What is the 'age-crime curve' ?
The distribution of crime by age
What are Hirschi's 4 elements of social bonding ?
- Involvment: The physical manifestation of commitment.
- Commitment: Feeling of wanting to do someone you care about proud
Define primary and secondary deviance
- Primary: The initial act of breaking the law
- Secondary: A negative reaction to primary deviance
Who are the 4 main theorists involved in left-realism
Define respondent memory decay
Ensuring you include crime experiences in the right time frame
List the 9 common reasons for non-reporting to police
1) Lack of knowledge of crime
2) Too trivial/minor
3) Police cant do anything about it
4) Police not interested
5) Dislike police
6) Fear of consequences
8) Report it to other authorities (IRD, Tax Evasion)
9) Inappropriate matter for police (e.g. Domestic violence, child abuse etc.)
Define 'deviance defining elite'
- Police are 'primary' definers of crime news
- Media are 'secondary' definers of crime news
Define moral panic
Situation where the reaction to the event, person, or group is disproportionate to the threat
Define Race and Ethnicity
- Race refers to your physical characteristics such as skin colour or facial features
- Ethnicity refers to a shared culture
Define the 'Chivalry' hypothesis
Women treated more leniently
When does the age crime curve peak ?
It peaks around 15 to early 20's - Only shows KNOWN crime
% of those under 17 that account for total apprehensions
16.5 % (1 in 6)
% of those aged 17-20 that account for total apprehensions
23 % (1 in 5)
% of those aged 21-30 that account for total apprehensions
28.5 % (1 in 3)
Aged 31-50 account for ___% of total apprehensions
26.8 % ( 1 in 3.5)
Aged 51+ account for ___% of total apprehensions
4.2 % (1 in 16.5)
Give 4 counterpoints/ alternatives of the age crime link
1) Can't study age and crime independently of other variables
2) correlations between AGE & CRIME vary over time and across a range of OFFENCES
3) Visibility: Youth are targets of police intervention
4) Over-reliant on Official Statistics
Give the % of DISHONESTY/PROPERTY and VIOLENCE offences by those aged under 17
61.5% - Dishonesty
13% - Violence
Give Sutherlands's Class Bias explanation
- Crimes of the powerful are dealt with outside the C.J.S
- Crimes of the power-LESS are dealt with by police and the C.J.S
What did Sutherland mean by Penalties handed out differently ?
Corporate crimes = No OFFICIAL action, or subject to civil suit very rarely resulting in fines or prison sentences
White Collar crimes are also responsible for what ?
Responsible for much more violent than conventional criminal violence (e.g. Road safety, Hazardous chemicals)
What did Sutherland conclude ?
That 90% of the 70 top corporations qualify as 'habitual' criminals. Big differences in dealing with CORPORATE and CONVENTIONAL crime
List the 2 main points of Braithwaite' Class-Crime link
1) Lower class adults DO commit more crimes that are handled by police, at a HIGHER rate than middle class
2) Lower class delinquents DO commit these crimes at a HIGHER rate than middle class
Give the counter-points/Alternative to Class and Crime
Working Class is more likely to be:
-Scrutinised, observed, and detected
- Arrested once reported
- Prosecuted, remanded in custody, and then found guilty
- Receive harsher punishments than middle/upper class
- Judges and Juries ARE influenced by appearance and SOCIAL STATUS
Give a NZ example of Corporate Crime/ White Collar Crime
Bridgecorp was the only company that collapsed owing $500 million to its investors.
SFO investigated frauds worth BILLIONS btwn 2006-2009.
40+ companies collapsed.
Five Star Group was another NZ company, went into receivership in 2007, owing $46 million. SFO charged the 4 directors with approx. 100 OFFENCES.
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