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Who was the first medieval pope?
Gregory
What was the Great Schism?
a time of rival popes within the Roman church
Where did John Huss preach the truth of God's Word?
Bohemia
The single most powerful institution in western Europe was the ?
papacy
Which crusade was led by great kings, including Richard I?
Third
Who gave the Papal States, a huge tract of land across central Italy, to the pope
Pepin
sacred acts that "earned" God's grace
sacraments
way of life based upon the ownership and use of land
feudalism
Who was crowned Emperor of the Romans on Christmas Day A.D. 800
Charlemagne
What sultan of Egypt successfully united the Muslims against the Crusaders
Saladin
author of "The Prince"
Machiavelli
"Morning Star of the Reformation"
John Wycliffe
The __ theory stated that Christ founded his church on Peter, not himself
Petrine
The council of __ made it illegal for anyone but the church to own a copy of the Bible
Toulouse
Who were the earliest inhabitants of the British Isles
the Celts
Name the four great nations that developed in Western Europe in the latter Middle Ages
England, France, Spain and Portugal
Who converted many to Roman Catholicism in England and eventually became Archbishop of Canterbury?
Augustine
How was Christianity in England different from Christianity in mainland Europe?
English people had parts of the Bible written in their own language.
Who was the first great king of England?
Alfred the Great
William the Conqueror
the victor at the Battle of Hastings which decided who would be king of England in 1066.
Accomplishments of William the Conqueror
He transformed England into a strong nation-state; brought feudalism to England; ordered census for Domesday book; abolished the Witan and replaced with the Great Council
Norman influence in England
French language, culture, and politics
Richard the Lionhearted
Nickname for king Richard I as he enjoyed participating in the Crusades
When was the Magna Carta signed?
1215
The Hundred Years War was between what 2 nations?
England and France
York and Lancaster
the two houses involved in the "War of the Roses"
Philip IV and Pope Boniface VIII
the two disputed over whether the king could tax the clergy without the pope's consent; should the clergy be subject to trial in ordinary courts of law
French Estates General
French version of Parliament
Results of the Hundred Years' War
established the absolute power of the French monarchy over the nation bringing an end to French feudalism
Moors
group of Muslims who crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and invaded Spain
Reconquista
to take back Spain from the Moors
Ferdinand and Isabella
The king and queen who brought all of Spain under their rule; driving out the Moors
Ferdinand and Isabella
they spread Romanism throughout Spain in order to wipe out Islamic beliefs.
Spanish inquisition
An effort to root up and destroy all heretics (those who disputed Romanism) in Spain.
Christians refusing to convert to Romanism
Many were tortured, imprisoned, exiled or killed
Modern Spain
the nation emerged with the ambition to rule the world in the name of the Roman Catholic Church
Portugal
this nation took the lead in exploration called "The Age of Discovery" and competed for control of commerce in the Orient and distant territories.
The Northern Renaissance Scholars
they realized there is no more important book than the Bible
Philip Melanchthon
German scholar who wrote the first systematic theology of the Protestant Reformation
William Tyndale
He produced the first printed translation of the New Testament from Greek. He was strangled and burned to death at the stake in 1536.
The Council of Touslouse ;1229
it forbid ordinary people to own the Bible
Martin Luther
He was born in Germany in 1483. He became a monk living according to the dictates of the Roman Catholic church; however he was tortured by doubts about his salvation.
Prince Frederick
He decided Luther should be heard on German soil resulting in the meeting with the Diet of Augsburg.
Johann Tetzel
He was most notable for selling indulgences in Germany, to the disgust of Luther.
Pope Leo X
The pope during Luther's protest of the Roman Catholic church.
October 31, 1517
The date Luther posted the Ninety-five thesis on the door of the church in Wittenburg.
Ninety-five Thesis
This served as the notice Luther was ready to debate about indulgences.
Luther's intentions for his protest
to restore the Roman Catholic church to the authority of the scriptures
Luther declared this at his debate
neither the pope nor the church are infallible and the Bible is the Supreme authority.
Wartburg Castle
Where Luther hid after he was declared a heretic and made an outlaw at the Diet of Worms.
Prince Frederick
He helped Luther hide after a band of horsemen faked a "kidnapping" of Luther
Translation of New Testament into German
Luther accomplished this in 1522 while hiding out in Wartburg Castle.
Old Testament from Hebrew to German
Luther and his colleages accomplished this
Well known hymn written by Luther
"A Mighty Fortress is Our God"
Institutes of the Christian Religion
written by John Calvin; apart from the Bible one of the most influential books of the Protestant Reformation
Switzerland
Where Calvin had to flee as a result of King Frances I
trying to stop the Reformation in France. Calvin studied the Bible and works of Luther during this time.
Anabaptist
means re-baptized. Followers are known today as Baptists.
John Knox
"Scottish Reformer"
How did Charles V respond to the Augsburg Confession? What compromise agreement was made between the emperor and the Protestant Germans? Give the date and results of the agreement.
Charles' response was to give the Lutherans until 1531 to return to the Roman church or face war. The Peace of Augsburg , 1555 was the compromise agreement between the emperor and the protestants. The spirit of the Protestant Reformation faded in Germany as a result of the agreement.
Name the first three wives of Henry VIII
Catherine (divorced, put away), Anne Boleyn (executed); Jane Seymour (natural death).
Describe the reign of Mary Tudor. By what name is she remembered? What effect did her reign have on Protestantism in England?
"Bloody Mary", her nickname, forced people to change their religion back to Roman Catholicism. She tortured (burned at the stake) and imprisoned many protestants. Her reign strengthened the Protestant cause.
Describe the background and character of Elizabeth I. By what 2 nicknames did the English refer to her?
Elizabeth's childhood was dangerous as her sister Queen Mary was urged to have her killed. Elizabeth was the daughter of Anne Boleyn who was executed when she was a young child. Elizabeth developed courage, resolution, and devotion. The English referred to her as ""Good Queen Bess." She is also known as the "Virgin Queen".
How did Elizabeth attempt to settle her country's religious conflict? Name and describe the groups who were dissatisfied with her religious program.
With the "Elizabethan Settlement", she officially established many Protestant doctrines and practices, and laid the foundation for the Anglican church. Dissatisfied groups include English Catholics who felt her intolerant to their beliefs, Puritans who wanted the church of England "purified", and Separatists who wanted to separate from the church altogether.
How did England prepare for war with Spain? Whom did Elizabeth employ to improve the English navy?
Elizabeth prepared for war by building up the navy. Sir John Hawkins was employed to improve the navy.
Describe the French Monarchy at the beginning of the Reformation. How were religion and and politics mixed together in France?
By the beginning of the Reformation, France was a strong nation-state with an unrestricted monarchy. Because church and state was so closely tied in France, and religion had been viewed from a political vantage for so long, any change in religion foreshadowed a change in politics as well.
Give the date and the terms of the Peace of Westphalia. What were the other results of the Thirty Years' War?
The Peace of Westphalia was signed in 1648. The terms were: 1. the Protestant princes of Germany regained lost territories and authority. The ruler decided the official religion of each territory. 2. Calvinism required legal status in the Holy Roman Empire along with Romanism and Lutherism. 3. the Holy Roman Empire lost territory in the north to Sweden. and in the south to France. 4. Switzerland and the Netherlands were recognized as independent countries. France became the most powerful nation in Europe while the Holy Roman Emperor lost his power altogether. The Hapsburgs retained their power only in Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia. Germany was totally devastated.
Augsburg Confession
The first Protestant Confession of faith
Peace of Augsburg
Treaty in 1555 which gave official approval to the territorial, state-established church principle in Germany. Each prince would decide which religion, Lutherism or Romanism would be permitted in the territory.
Inquisition
court of the Roman church which used torture and terror to obtain confessions of heresy from its Protestant victims.
Council of Trent
council at which the traditional Romanist doctrines were reaffirmed one by one while the Biblical teachings of the Protestant Reformation, including the very heart of the Gospel, were denied
English Reformation
greatest event of the Tudor period, severing of England from the religious empire of Rome and the establishment of Protestantism in the land.
Elizabethan Settlement
a series of laws which officially established many Protestant doctrines and practices, laying the foundation of the Anglican Church (Church of England)
Edict of Nante
declaration given by Henry IV which stipulated that Huguenots could live in any town or district of France they chose, but could practice their faith only in specifically designated town where Protestantism had previously been the prevailing religion.
Thirty Years' War
occurred in phases between 1618 and 1648; mainly a civil war in Germany and the Holy Roman Empire over internal religious and political issues.
Peace of Westphalia
document signed in 1648 that ended the Thirty Years' War
Johannes Kepler
discovered three laws of planetary motion 1609
Heliocentric
The theory that the sun is center of the universe.
Nicolaus Copernicus
1543 Polish astronomer who said that the planets, including earth, revolve around the sun
Sir Isaac Newton
He is known as the "Father of Modern Science" and contributed more to the scientific progress of mankind than any other individual before or since.
Sun King
King Louis XIV. He inherited the throne at 5 years old. His regent was Cardinal Mazarin. His was the longest reign in European history.
French Nobles
this group avoided paying taxes (France)
Peasants
this group payed most of the taxes in France.
French territories in the "New World." also known as "New France.
Canada, Great Lakes Region, Mississippi Valley
La Salle
He claimed the entire Mississippi Valley for France; naming it Louisiana
Voltaire
He promoted rationalism; and "Father of the Enlightenment"
Rousseau
Father of French Romanticism" He advocated a return to nature.
Rationalism
this thought exalted man's emotions and reason as the basis for truth (over scripture and God). Rejects God and absolutes if they cannot be understood.
"The Social Contract"
This was written by Rousseau. He stated that private property caused problems in society and that men should not own private property.
he Enlightenment and its impact on France.
Biblical Christianity was rejected. Romanism tied closely to politics. Atheism was on the rise. Advocated humanistic ideas. It set the stage for the French Revolution.
Assembly of the Estates General May 5, 1789
this meeting initiated the French Revolution
Tennis Court Oath
A vow by members of the 3rd estate not to disband until a national constitution was written
Mass Revolution initiated
Louis XVI sent 18,000 troops to Versailles to disband the National-Assembly as he considered them a threat to his authority. This initiated the "Mass Revolution."
"Storming of the Bastille"
July 14, 1789 a French mob stormed a prison and released a few prisoners. Louis XVI sent troops killing 98 people. The French revolutionaries retaliated killing some government officials. Some were beheaded, put on poles and paraded in the streets of Paris.
Jacobin Club
Extremists or Radicals who wanted a continued revolution and more changes.
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
decreased the power of the pope
French Constitution of 1791
the first written constitution ending absolute monarchy; beginning a constitutional monarchy and leaving the king with limited veto power.
Conservatives (the Right)
supported the king; and did not want the French Revolution to continue.
Center
people with no particular principles
Left
young radicals against the king and not content with the Constitution of 1791; They wanted the French Revolution to go much further
Maximilien Robespierre
He led the young French radicals in the "Reign of Terror." He was later beheaded ending the "Reign of Terror."
Louis XVI
He was beheaded on January 21, 1793. He was charged with treason after he left a note denouncing the revolution. He was caught trying to leave France to try to rally support from other nations.
Mary Antoinette
Wife of Louis XVI. She was beheaded along with 40,000 other people considered "enemies of the state."
Radicals
wanted to completely abolish Christianity in France
Directory
The new government created after the "Reign of Terror" ended.
Napoleon Bonaparte
Represented himself as "Son of the Revolution." Became a tyrant. He declared himself "Emperor of France" in 1804. He wanted a new empire in the "New World."
"Consulate"
5 years after the Directory is established, Napoleon emerges with his tyranny establishing this new republic.
Napoleon's policies and promises
established peace with Russia, Austria and Great Britain. He promised "Liberty, equality, and justice," less corruption in tax collections. He put law codes in place and a centralized government.
"Continental System"
Napoleon tried to destroy England's trade using this approach after losing battles with the English. As a result, many European nations saw him as a tyrant.
Elba
Napoleon was defeated by the rest of Europe and exiled to this island (first time)
Battle of Waterloo 1815
This was the battle that Napoleon lost after escaping from Elba; ending his reign as a French Tyrant.
St. Helena
Island where Napoleon was exiled (2nd time). Spent the last 6 years of his life there.
Problems with the Anglican Church
Many English Protestants were not happy with the Anglican church as it had kept many Romanist practices and beliefs such as apostolic succession and episcopal form of church government.
Apostolic Succession
The belief that bishops of the church come from an uninterrupted line of apostles going back to the first twelve apostles appointed by Jesus Christ.
Puritans View of Church Government
Puritans rejected Episcopal (bishops) form preferring the Presbyterian form of church government.
Separatists View of Church Government
Rejected Episcopal and Presbyterian forms believing that each local church be independent and separate from other churches, including the Church of England. (Anglican)
The Petition of Right
1628 the petition is created by parliament formally declaring and reaffirming the liberties and rights of Englishmen.
William III and Mary II
William and his wife Mary, Protestant daughter of James II ruled England as king and queen limited by English Law.
Toleration Act
1689 established authentic religious freedom for England.
United Kingdom of Great Britain
The official union of England and Scotland under the rule of Queen Anne in 1707.
Industrial Revolution in England
Began in England where there were efficient river systems and harbors to transport goods. England also had plenty of natural resources such as coal and iron including a huge non-agricultural labor force as well as a government that supported private industry and ownership along with the greatest naval force and merchant marines.
Capitalism
Economic system in which:
1. Private ownership of the means of production
2. Investments determined by private decision, not by the government
3. Free market decides prices, production, and distribution of goods. Not decided by the government
Adam Smith (1723-1790) and Capitalism
Smith wrote the "Wealth of Nations" in which he declared that "individual freedom in economics leads to the greatest good not only for the individual but for society as a whole." Smith was one of the first to promote capitalism.