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Structure & Function Vocabulary
Vocabulary for Smithsonian STC-MS Structure & Function Unit
Terms in this set (125)
The process by which materials, using energy supplied by the cell, are moved across a membrane.
Any behavior or change in the structure of an organism that affects its ability to survive and reproduce.
Not using oxygen.
A pigment producing red, purple or blue color in flowers.
A substance produced by the body to fight disease.
A domain of single-celled, prokaryotic organisms that survive in extreme environments, such as extreme heat, acid, or salt.
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
A chemical in which energy is stored and from which energy is released to meet the body's needs.
An organism capable of synthesizing its own food using light or chemical energy.
A long, cylindrical projection of a neuron that typically conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body.
Any flesh-eating organism.
A protein that assists in the movement of substances across the cell membrane by passive or active transport.
The smallest organized unit in a living thing.
A series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division into two sister cells.
The outermost living layer of a plant or animal cell that regulates what enters and leaves the cell.
A scientific theory that describes the properties of cells as the basic unit of structure and reproduction in all organisms.
The process by which glucose combines with oxygen to release energy, carbon dioxide, and water.
The outermost, rigid, nonliving layer of a plant cell.
Central Nervous System
The part of the nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord.
A large structure found in plant cells whose function is to store materials and wastes.
A protein that allows the transport of specific substances across a cell membrane using passive diffusion.
A green pigment that traps energy from the Sun.
A chlorophyll-containing structure found in plant cells and some single-celled organisms; its function is to produce food for the organism through a process known as photosynthesis.
A branching diagram showing the relationships among a number of species or groups of organisms.
The development of knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.
An organism from which several organisms have directly descended.
Compound Light Microscope
A microscope that uses two lenses and light to make a specimen visible.
Trees or shrubs bearing cones and evergreen leaves.
A type of tissue that connects or separates different types of tissues and organs in the body.
The part of the experiment that does not receive the variable and is used for comparison.
The jellylike material inside a cell and surrounded by a cell membrane.
Trees or shrubs that shed their broad leaves annually.
An organism that breaks down once-living material, such as dead plants or animals.
Branched projection of a neuron that receives an impulse from other cells.
An epidermis, usually a single layer of cells, that covers the soft parts of a plant for protection.
A thick layer of living tissue below the epidermis that contains blood vessels and glands in many animals.
The process by which cells become specialized to perform a particular function.
The process of moving substances from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
DNA (Deoxyriboneucleic Acid)
Hereditary material that determines an organism's traits.
The stage of an organism that follows fertilization and continues until birth or germination.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
A structure found in plant and animal cells that packages and moves materials around the cell, produces lipids, and breaks down different substances.
An organism that is able to generate heat internally to maintain a constant body temperature.
Usable power, usually kept in chemical bonds, that can be released to do work.
One or many layers of cells that form the protective outer covering of plants and animals.
The study of changes in active and inactive genes and how cells read these genes.
A type of tissue that acts as a covering or lining of body surfaces and cavities.
The state in which the concentrations of a diffusing substance in two areas become equal.
A type of cell or an organism whose cell(s) contains a nucleus; includes all plant, animal, fungus, and protist species.
A theory that explains that modern organisms have arisen from a common ancestor. Changes in the ancestor's DNA that allowed them to better survive and reproduce in different situations or environments caused new species to occur over time.
A type of cellular respiration that occurs in some organisms that does not require oxygen.
A protein that acts as a blood-clotting substance.
A type of cell that assists in hemostasis by creating fibrin-containing connective tissue to prevent loss of blood.
One of many portions of a DNA molecule that contains genetic instructions.
A simple sugar that is used for energy.
A folded, membrane-bound organelle that functions to transport or secrete materials out of the cell.
Tissue that makes up the majority of a plant's body and that carries out processes such as photosynthesis, storage, and support.
Specialized leaf cell that works in pairs to control the opening and closing of the stomata in a plant.
The process of stopping blood flow to prevent blood loss.
An organism that eats plant matter.
An organism that obtains energy from taking in food, like plant or animal matter.
The act of being inactive or dormant during winter months.
The ability to maintain a stable internal environment when faced with external changes.
A neuron found in the central nervous system that conveys messages between a motor neuron and a sensory neuron.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)
A procedure in which eggs are removed from a female's ovaries, fertilized with sperm, and returned to the female's uterus.
A cellular structure found primarily in animal cells that contains enzymes used to break down large molecules, protect against foreign invaders, and recycle old organelles.
An organism that can be seen without magnification.
An animal that is covered in hair and nourishes young with milk from mammary glands.
A physical substance that occupies space and possesses mass.
Stored information that can be later recalled.
A tissue of plant dermis containing chloroplasts.
The rate at which an organism uses energy.
An organism that cannot be seen without magnification.
Mitochondrion (pl. mitochondria)
A folded, membrane-bound organelle responsible for providing the energy to perform cellular functions.
A species that has been studied in great detail to understand specific phenomena in biology.
A nerve cell that transmits impulses from the brain or spinal cord to a muscle or gland.
Any organism composed of two or more cells.
A type of tissue that assists with movement in animals.
A type of issue that is responsible for information transmission and processing in animals.
A specialized cell for transmitting nerve impulses.
An individual who studies tha anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, or molecular biology of the nerves and nervous tissue.
A chemical substance released by a neuron into a synapse to trigger a nervous impulse in another neuron.
A structure found inside the nucleus and is responsible for creating structures called ribosomes.
The command center of the cell; regulates cell functions and contains the DNA.
A new organism that results from reproduction.
Specialized structures that are responsible for detection of odorants and the sense of smell.
An organism that eats both plants and animals.
A group of tissues working together to perform a specific function.
One of many structures in a cell that performs a specific function.
A group of organs that work together to perform one of more functions.
A living creature.
The diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane.
The process by which substances pass through a cell membrane from a place where they are more concentrated to a place where they are less concentrated, without using any energy from the cell.
Peripheral Nervous System
The part of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord.
A tissue in the vascular system of plants responsible for moving sugar from the leaves to other parts of the plant.
A structure or pigment that is sensitive to light.
The process by which chlorophyll-containing cells use energy from the Sun to combine water and carbon dioxide to produce glucose and to release oxygen as a by-product.
A type of cell or an organism whose cell does not contain a nucleus; includes all bacteria and archaea species.
The ability to be unconsciously aware of body position, movement, and balance using internal stimuli.
A reaction to a stimulus that does not require conscious thought.
A neural pathway that includes only a sensory neuron and motor neuron and does not require the central nervous system.
The process by which certain organisms produce new body parts.
A cellular structure found in large numbers that produces proteins for the cell.
A visual representation of observations of the natural world that places emphasis on accuracy and detail.
A material or membrane that allows certain substances to pass through, but not others.
A nerve cell that transmits sensory information, such as sight, sound, and feeling.
An organ that contains nerve endings and responds to stimulation.
A group of interbreeding organisms that share similar characteristics.
A cell of a multicellular organism that is able to develop into any one of the many types of cells.
Stimulus (pl. stimuli)
An internal or external event that causes a response in a cell, tissue or organism.
Stoma (pl. stomata)
The opening in the surface of a leaf through which water vapor and gases pass.
A junction between two nerve cells where neurotransmitters diffuse.
The process in which connections between neurons are eliminated in order to increase efficiency of the nervous system.
To create something, usually through chemical means.
A group of similar cells that work together to carry out a specific function.
The process of taking in water through roots and carrying it to the leaves where it is released as water vapor.
The position an organism occupies in a food chain.
An organism composed of only one cell.
A cellular structure that stores materials and waste.
Tissue responsible for moving materials in plants, specifically the xylem and phoem.
The narrowing of blood vessels.
The widening of blood vessels.
Two microscope slides, or a slide and a coverslip, with a drop of liquid and/or a specimen between them.
A tissue in the vascular system of plants responsible for moving water and minerals.
The first new cell of an offspring, created when the sperm and egg combine.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Lesson 2: Cells (Structure & Function)
Lesson 3: Cell Organelles (Structure & Function)
Lesson 4: Photosynthesis (Structure & Function)
Lesson 5: Cellular Respiration (Structure & Functi…
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