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Ch. 1: Intro to Personality Psych
Terms in this set (54)
-words that describe traits
-attributes of a person that are reasonably characteristic of the individual and perhaps even enduring over time
-the set of psychological traits and mechanisms w/in the individual that are organized and relatively enduring
-influence interactions w, and adaptations to, the environment
-refers to an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotions, and behavior, together w the psychological mechanisms-hidden or not- behind those patterns
-characteristics that describe ways in which people are unique or different from or similar to each other
-includes all sorts of aspects of persons that are psychologically meaningful
-stable and consistent aspects of personality
-tendency to display a certain psychological trait w regularity
-refers to the processes of personality
-may make people more sensitive to certain kinds of info from the environment (input), may make them more likely to think about specific options (decision rules), or may guide their behavior toward certain categories of action
within the individual
-means that people carry the sources of their personality inside themselves
-means that the psychological traits and mechanisms for a given person are not simply a random collection of elements
-personality is coherent
-means that the psychological traits are generally consistent over time, particularly in adulthood, and over situations
-personality traits and mechanisms can have influence our actions, how we view our ourselves, how we think about the world, how we interact with others, and how we feel
-include sociological and economic influences, as well as physical and biological forces
-a person's interactions w situations include perceptions, selections, evocations, and manipulations
-refer to how we "see" or interpret an environment
-describes the manner in which we choose situations
-refer to the reactions we produce in others, often quite unintentionally
-refer to the ways in which we attempt to influence others
-inherited solutions to the survival and reproductive problems posed by the hostile forces of nature
-primary product of the selective process
-can be physical, social, and intrapsychic
-which aspect of the environment is important at any moment in time is frequently determined by the personality of the person in that environment
-the traits and mechanisms of personality that are typical of our species and are possessed by everyone or nearly everyone
-refer to ways in which each person is like some other people
-every individual has personal and unique qualities that make him or her diff. from others
-the number, origin, and meaning of such differences, is the study of individual differences
-refer to ways in which people of one group differ from those of another group
-the study of general characters of people as they are distributed in the population
-typically involves statistical comparisons between individuals or groups
-the study of single individuals, w an effort to observe general principles as they are manifested in a single life over time
domain of knowledge
-a specialty area of science and scholarship, where psychologists have focused on learning about some specific and limited aspect of human nature
-deals centrally w the ways in which individuals differ from one another
-connects w all other domains
-focuses on the number, nature, and consequences of fundamental dispositions
-the core assumption of biological approaches to personality is that humans are, first and foremost, collections of biological systems, and these systems provide the building blocks for behavior, thought, and emotion
-deals w mental mechanisms of personality, many of which operate outside the realm of conscious awareness
-predominant theory in this domain is Freud's theory of psychoanalysis
-focuses on cognition and subjective experience, such as conscious thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and desires about oneself and others
social and cultural domain
-personality affects, and is affected by, the social and cultural context in which it is found
-diff. cultures may bring out diff. facets of our personalities in manifest behavior
-personality plays a key role in how we cope, adapt, and adjust to the ebb and flow of events in our day-to-day lives
-a theory that serves as a useful guide for researchers, organizes known facts, and makes predictions about future observations
-personally useful and crucially important to some people, but they're based on leaps of faith, not on reliable facts and systematic observations
-based on systematic observations that can be repeated by others and that yield similar conclusions
5 scientific standards for evaluating personality theories
-compatibility and integration
-theories that explain more empirical data within a domain are generally superior to those that explain fewer findings
-theories that steer scientists to important new discoveries about personality are superior to those that fail to provide this guidance
-the capacity to render precise predictions that scientists can test empirically
-dependent upon the precision of its predictions
-the fewer premises and assumptions a theory contains, the greater its parsimony
compatibility and integration across domains and levels
-theory that takes into account the principles and laws of other scientific domains that may affect the study's main subject
traits describe the _____________ of a person.
most psychological mechanisms have three essential ingredients, namely ____________.
inputs, decision rules, and outputs
the definition of personality stresses that the important sources of personality ______________ and are at least somewhat stable over time and consistent over situations
reside within the individual
the term ______________ means that the psychological traits and mechanisms for a given person are not simply a random collection of elements
Mark is prone to anger outbursts. He is hostile and rude at work, aggressive while playing sports, and fights with his wife everyday. In this scenario, Mark is exhibiting traits that are relatively ______________ over time and situations.
Personality plays a key role in affecting how people shape their lives. It is in this sense that personality traits are forces that ______________.
influence how people think, act, and feel
an emphasis on _____________ conveys the notion that a central feature of personality concerns adaptive functioning.
T/F: the ways in which people cope with their social environment- the challenges they encounter in their struggle for belongingness, love, and esteem- do not influence an understanding of personality.
personality can be analyzed at ______________ levels, which are well summarized by Kluckhohn and Murray in their book on culture and personality.
the first level of personality analysis describes _______________ in general.
the dimension of _____________ in the second level of personality analysis refers to ways in which each person is like some other people.
personality psychologists who study different cultures and different political parties are interested in observing _____________.
differences among groups
_____________ research is typically applied to identify universal human characteristics and dimensions of individual or group differences.
____________ research results in case studies or the psychological biography of a single person.
the first standard for evaluating a personality theory is _________
the evaluative standard of ______________ is concerned w whether a theory provides a guide to important new discoveries about personality that were now known before.
according to the evaluative standard of _____________, theories should provide precise predictions that can be empirically verified.
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