30 terms

American Journey - Chapter 27 Terms - The Cold War Era 1945-1954

"Big Three"
FDR, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin
Yalta Agreement
1.The Soviet Union agreed to enter the war against Japan in return for some territories in Asia.
2.The Allies also divided Germany into four zones (each controlled by either the U.S., Britain, France, or the USSR) until elections could be held to determine its future.
3.Stalin also agreed to allow free elections in occupied Eastern Europe and to cooperate in planning for the new international organization (UN) proposed by the U.S. and Britain.
United Nations
June 6, 1945; 50 nations, including the Soviet Union, signed this charter in San Francisco. The members hoped that this group could settle disputes between nations and prevent future wars.
"Iron Curtain"
This was Winston Churchill's idea of Europe - the Soviets had cut off Eastern Europe from the West (Communist governments). Behind this ______ _________ lay the countries of Eastern Europe (capitalist democracies). Churchill warned that the Soviets would try to gain control of other parts of the world as well.
The policy that the U.S. would try to forcefully stop Soviet expansion through limited military means and nonmilitary means in areas of the world that were of strategic importance to the U.S.
George Kennan
An American diplomat who argued that the U.S. and the USSR could not cooperate and that the U.S. must take forceful steps to stop Soviet expansion. Truman drew from the ideas of this man.
Truman Doctrine
A commitment to help nations threatened by communism and Soviet expansion.
Marshall Plan
George Marshall's plan to provide massive economic aid to Europe. Congress approved this plan only after Soviet-supported Communists took over the government of Czechoslovakia. Between 1948 and 1951, $13 billion was contributed to the rebuilding of the countries of Western Europe.
Berlin blockade
June 24, 1948; Soviet troops rushed into position around the edge of West Berlin. They stopped traffic on all highways, railroads, and water routes. Two million citizens were cut off from supplies.
Berlin airlift
Truman organized for American and British planes to fly food, fuel, etc. to Berlin. The _______ ________ continued night and day for 10+ months, delivering over 2 million tons of supplies.
Cold war
A war in which the two enemies did not actually fight each other. (USSR and the U.S.) Instead, both sides built up their military and arms for intimidation.
April 1949; the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was signed by the U.S., Canada, and 10 Western European nations. The agreement stated that "an armed attack against one or more of [the member nations] shall be considered an attack against all." The _______ countries created a large military force.
Warsaw Pact
1955; the Communist governments of Western Europe established this pact in response to NATO. The alliance had a military force of its own. The formation of NATO and the _________ _______ divided Europe into two armed camps.
National Security Council
(NSC) -The NSC advisers believed the U.S. needed to take a more active stand against communism everywhere. In 1950, the NSC released a report (NSC-68) which said that the U.S. must actively "foster the seeds of destruction within the Soviet Union" and fight communism everywhere.
The new Jewish state divided from Palestine after the Arabs and Jews both claimed it. It was attacked by Arab armies in the first of six major wars between the Arabs and ______.
A surge in prices which resulted from a huge increase in consumer demand and spending and the lift of government price controls during the war.
Fair Deal
September 1945; proposed by Truman to solve some of the nation's economic problems. He proposed to raise the minimum wage, expand Social Security benefits, increase federal spending to create jobs, build new public housing, and create a system of national health insurance. However, this failed to pass in Congress (it was Republican).
Taft-Hartley bill
1947; this bill limited the actions workers could take against their employers. It outlawed the closed shop, allowed the gov. to stop any strike that endangered public health or safety, and aimed to prevent future strikes. Critics called this a "slave labor bill."
Closed shop
A workplace that hires only union members.
GI Bill
1944; Congress passed the Servicemen's Readjustment Act, better known as the ____ _____. It stands for government issue. This law provided billions of dollars in loans to help returning soldiers, sailors, and marines attend college, receive special training, set up businesses, or buy homes.
National Security Act
1947; this act unified the army, navy, marines, and air force under the Department of Defense. A secretary of defense would head this department. The act also set up a Joint Chiefs of Staff (made from the heads of each of the armed forces). A National Security Council would also advise the president on foreign and military matters.
Central Intelligence Agency
1947; (CIA) - aids American foreign policy by using spies to collect info. in other countries, evaluate it, and pass it on to the president and other foreign-policy decision. This agency was so successful that in 1949, Congress gave the agency the right to receive, exchange, and spend money without giving account to Congress.
The Southern Democrats formed the States' Rights Democratic Party, or ___________, and nominated Strom Thurmond as their president. This group protested against Truman's support for civil rights legislation.
Fair Deal 2
When Truman wins the Election of 1948, he reintroduces the Fair Deal. Congress passed laws to raise the minimum wage, expand Social Security benefits for senior citizens, and provide funds for housing for low-income families. However, most of the measures were defeated.
To end the separation of races. Truman ordered federal departments and agencies to end job discrimination and ordered the armed forces to ____________.
38th parallel
After World War II, the U.S. and the USSR split Korea (a colonial possession of Japan) at this degree of latitude. The Soviets controlled North Korea, and the Americans controlled South Korea. Tensions between the two Koreas were high.
The capital city of South Korea; within days, the North Koreans had captured this after the invasion on June 25, 1950.
Douglas MacArthur
A hero of World War II; appointed to command the UN forces. After pushing back into a stalemate after China had intervened, this general argued that the UN forces should attack China (opposed by Truman). On April 11, 1951, this general was fired to the dismay of the American public. "Old soldiers never die, they just fade away."
The North Korean capital; captured by South American forces, but recaptured by the Chinese troops.
Cease-fire agreement
July 27, 1953; during the presidency of Eisenhower, this agreement ending the Korean War created a demilitarized zone extending roughly a mile and a half on either side of the 38th parallel.