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90 terms

Dev Psych Chpt 8, 9, 10 - The Play years

STUDY
PLAY
During the preschool years, the most common disease of young children in developed nations is
tooth decay
The brain center for speech is usually located in the
left hemisphere
Which of the following is an example of tertiary prevention of child maltreatment
removing a child from an abusive home
The brain area that registers emotions is the
amygdala
Children tend to have too much ____ in their diet, which contributes to ____
sugar; tooth decay
Skills that involve large body movements, such as running and jumping, are called
gross motor skills
The brain's ongoing myelination during childhood helps children
control their actions more precisely; react more quickly to stimuli; control their emotions
The leading cause of death in childhood is
accidents
Regarding lateralization, which of the following is not true
some cognitive skills require only one side of the brain
In young children, perseveration is a sign of
immature brain functions
The area of the brain that directs and controls the other areas is th
prefrontal cortex
The relationship between physical abuse and neglect and income can be described as
a negative correlation
Which of the following is true of the corpus callosum
It connects the 2 halves of the brain
The improvements in eye-hand coordination that allow preschoolers to catch and then throw a ball occur, in part, because
the brain areas associated with this ability become more fully myelinated
During the school years, inadequate lateralization of the brain and immaturity of the prefrontal cortex may contribute to deficiencies in
cognition; peer relationships; emotional control
Each year from ages 2-6, the average child gains and grows, respectively
4.5lbs and 3 inches
The center for perceiving various types of visual configurations is usually located in the brain's
right hemisphere
Regarding handedness, which of the following is not true
some societies favor left handed people
The most prevalent disease or condition of young children in developed nations is
tooth decay
Seeing her toddler reach for a brightly glowing burner on the stove, Sheila grabs his hand say says "No, that's very hot". Sheila's behavior is an example of
secondary prevention
Which of the following is true of a developed nation in which many ethnic groups live together
Children of African descent tend to be tallest, followed by Europeans, Asians, and Latinos
Which of the following is an example of perseveration
2 yr old Jason sings the same song over and over
Which of the following is an example of a fine motor skill
drawing with a pencil
Children who have been maltreated often
regard other children and adults as hostile and exploitative; are less friendly and more aggressive; are more isolated than other children
The left half of the brain contains areas dedicated to all of the following except
creative impulses
When parents or caregivers do not meet a child's basic physical, educational, or emotional needs, it is referred to as
neglect
Most gross motor skills can be learned by healthy children by about age
3
Andrea is concerned because her 3 yr old daughter has been having nightmares. Her pediatrician tells her
not to worry, because nightmares are often caused by increased activity in the amygdala, which is normal during early childhood
The brain area that is a central processor for the memory is the
hippocampus
During the play years, children's appetites seem ___ they were in the first 2 years of life
smaller than
Piaget believed that children are in the preoperational stage from ages
2 to 6 years
Which of the following is not a characteristic of preoperational thinking
abstract thinking
Which of the following provides evidence that early childhood is a sensitive period, rather than a critical period, for language learning
people can and do master their native language after early childhood; vocab, grammar and pronunciation are more acquired especially early during early childhood; neurological characteristic of the young child's developing brain facilitate language acquisition
According to Vygotsky, children learn because adults do all of the following except
provide reinforcement
Reggio Emilia is
a new form of early-chilhood education that encourages children to master skills not usually seen until age 7 or so
The vocabulary of preschooled children consists primarily of
verbs and concrete nouns
Preschoolers sometimes apply the rules of grammar even when they shouldn't. This tendency is called
overregulation
The Russian psychologist Vygotsky emphasized that
language helps children form ideas
Private speech can be described as
a way for formulating ideas to oneself
The child who has not yet grasped the principle of conservation is likely to
insist that a tall, narrow glass contains more liquid than a short, wide glass, even though both glasses actually contain the same amount
In later life, High/Scope graduates showed
higher scores on math and reading achievement tests
The best preschool programs are generally those that provide the most
positive social interactions among children and adults
Many preschool programs that are inspired by Piaget stress ____, in contrast to alternative programs that stress ____
child development; school readiness
Preschoolers can succeed at tests of conservation when
the test is presented in a simple, nonverbal, and gamelike way
Through the process called fast-mapping, children
immediately assimilate new words by connecting them through their assumed meaning to categories of words they have already mastered
Children who speak two languages by age 5
are less egocentric in their understanding of language; are more advanced in their theory of mind; have somewhat slower vocabulary development in one or both languages
Piaget believed that preoperational children fail conservation of liquid tests because of their tendency to
focus on appearance
A preschooler who focuses his or her attention on only one feature of a situation is demonstrating a characteristic of preoperational thought called
centration
Over characteristic of preoperational thought is
the inability to perform logical operations
The zone of proximal development represents the
skills or knowledge that are within the potential of the learner but are not yet mastered
According to Vygotsky, language advances thinking through private speech, and by
serving as a mediator of the social interaction that is a vital part of learning
Irreversibility refers to the
failure to understand that undoing a process will restore the original conditions
According to Piaget
it is impossible for preoperational children to grasp the concept of conservation, no matter how carefully it is explained
Scaffolding of a child's cognitive skills can be provided by
a mentor; the objects or experiences of a culture; the child's past learning
Which theorist would be most likely to agree with the stagement, "Adults should focus on helping children learn rather than on what they cannot do"?
Vygotsky
Children first demonstrate some understanding of grammer
in their earliest sentences
Seeing his cousin Jack for the first time in several months, 3 yr old Zach notices how long Jack's hair has become. "You're turning into a girl" he exclaims. Zach's comment reflect the preoperational child's
tendency to focus on appearance
Most 5 yr olds have difficulty understanding comparisons because
they don't understand that meaning depends on context
Overregularization indicates that a child
is clearly applying rules of grammar
Regarding the value of preschool education, most developmentalists believe that
most disadvantaged children will benefit from an early preschool education
Preschool children have a clear (but not necessarily accurate) concept of self. Typically, the preschooler believes that she or he
is great at almost everything
According to Freud, the third stage of psychosecual development, during which the penis is the focus of psychological concern and pleasure, is the
phallic stage
Girls generally are better than boys at regulating their
externalizing emotions
The three basic patterns of parenting described by Diana Baumrind are
authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative
Authoritative parents are receptive and loving, but they also normally
set limits and enforce rules
Children who watch a lot of violent TV or play violent video games
are more likely to be violent; do less reading; tend to have lower grades in school
Between 2 and 6 yrs of age, the form of aggression that is most likely to increase is
instrumental
During the play years, a child's self-concept is defined largely by his or her
expanding range of skills and competencies
Behaviorists emphasize the importance of ____ in the development of the preschool child
praise and blame
Children apply gener labels and have definite ideas about how boys and girls behave as early as age
2
Developmentalists agree that punishment should be
rare and limited to behaviors the child understands and can control
Six yr old Leonardo has superior verbal ability rivaling that of most girls his age. Dr. Laurent believes this is due to the fact that although his sex is predisposed to slower language development, Leonardo's upbringing in a liguistically rich home enhanced his biological capabilities. Dr. Laurent is evidently a proponent of
epigenetic theory
3 yr old Jake, who lashes out at the family pet in anger, is displaying signs of ____ problems, which suggests that he is emotionally ____
externalizing; undercontrolled
Compared to North American mothers, Japanese mothers are more likely to
use reasoning to control their preschoolers' social behavior; use expressions of disappointment to control their preschoolers' social behavior; express empathy for the child
When her friend hurts her feelings, Maya, shouts that she is a "mean old stinker!" Maya's behavior is an example of
relational aggression
Children of permissive parents are most likely to lack
self-control
The major psychosocial accomplishment of the play years is
learning when and how to express emotions
Which area of the brain plays an important role in the child's greater capacity for self-control that appears at age 4 or 5
prefrontal cortex
Generally speaking, the motivation of preschool children is
intrinsic
Which of the following best summarizes the current view of developmentalists regarding gender differences
developmentalists disagree on the proportion of gender differences that are biological in origin
According to Freud, a young boy's jealousy of his father's relationship with his mother, and the guilt feelings that result, are part of the
Oedipus complex
The style of parenting in which the parents make few demands on children, the discipline is lax, and the parents are nurturant and accepting is
permissive
Cooperating with a playmate is to ____ as insulting a playmate is to _____
prosocial behavior; antisocial behavior
Antipathy refers to a person's
feelings of anger or dislike toward another person
Which of the following theories advocates the development of gender identification as a means of avoiding guilt over feelings for the opposite-sex parent
psychoanalytic
A parent who wishes to use a time-out to discipline her son for behaving aggressively on the playground would be advised is
have the child sit quietly indoors for a few minutes
The preschooler's readiness to learn new tasks and play activities reflects his or her
emerging competency and self-awareness
Emotional regulation is in part related to maturation of a specific part of the brain in the
prefrontal cortex
In which style of parenting is the parents' word law and misbehavior strictly punished
authoritarian
Erikson noted that preschoolers eagerly begin many new activities but are vulnerable to criticism and feelings of failure; they experience the crisis of
initiative vs guilt