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Chapter 3 Section 1
Terms in this set (13)
What makes up matter?
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
What is the difference between a solid, liquid and a gas?
A solid's particles are more tightly pressed together, a liquid is not as tightly together but also pressed against to the particles, and the gas is able to move anywhere and everywhere freely because they are not pressed together at all.
What kind of energy do all particles of matter have?
What is the Kinetic Theory of Matter?
It is where the atoms and molecules of a substance act like very small particles that are constantly in motion.
Example of Kinetic Theory of Matter:
A hot cup of tea, first; the particles begin to move really quick, but as it cools they begin to slow down.
The Different States of Matter:
Classified as solids, liquids, or a gas. All determined on whether the shape/volume are definite or variable.
Solids have a definite shape and volume:
The structure of a solid is rigid, and the particles can't easily change position, those particles are held closely together by attractions and they also vibrate in place.
Liquids change shape, not volume:
The particles in liquids move a lot faster than solid particles, the particles move fast enough to overcome some of the forces of attractions between them. Liquids are able to take the shape of their container, which makes it easier for the particles to flow freely.
Gases change both the shape and volume:
These don't have fixed shapes, they can both flow, but they do change more than shape. They can change volume, the particles of a gas move fast enough to break away from each other.
Plasma is the most common state of matter:
About 99% of the known matter, also the sun and all other stars, is made up of plasma. Particles in plasma are electrically charged, they are found in lightning, fire, and the aurora borealis. Plasma conducts electric current current.
To the Kinetic Theory, all matter is made of particles- atoms and molecules- that are constantly in motion. Since they are in motion, all those particles of matter have kinetic energy.
Temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy:
Particles of matter are constantly moving, but don't all move at the same speed. Because of that, some particles have more kinetic energy than others have. When measuring the temperature, you measure the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object. More kinetic energy=higher temperature.
Thermal energy depends on particle speed and number of particles:
The temperature of a substance is not determined by how much of the substance you have. The total kinetic energy of the particles in each container is different. Because particles of matter move faster at higher temperatures than they do at lower temperatures, the faster the particles in a substance move, the more kinetic energy they have. However, the total kinetic energy (thermal energy) of a substance depends on the number of particles in that substance.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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