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A Roman historian who presented the facts accurately. He wrote about the good and the bad of imperial Rome in his Annals and Histories.


Roman biographer, wrote about an incident that took place in Rome during the reign of Emperor Claudius

Pliny the Younger

a masterful an prolific letter writer in ancient Rome, legate to Bithynia from AD 111-113


Jewish Historian, commanded the Jewish forces in Galilee during the first Jewish Revolt, wrote The Jewish Wars and a twenty-volume history of the Jews, the Jewish Antiquities- tried to prove to the Romans and to the Jew hating emperor Domitian that the Jews were a noble people, mentioned John the Baptist, account of the Palestinian rule of Pontius Pilate

St. Athanasius

prominent figure in fixing the New Testament canon at the present twenty-seven books


translated the entire Bible into Latin-Vulgate-meaning "common", took place in 383-384 at the request of Pope Damasus who wanted the sacred scripture to be in Latin, the common language of the day, Vulgate became the Church's official translation of the Bible from the original languages




Latin word for 70, first translation of the Bible into Greek


a person who is not Jewish


Hebrew for the covenant with the Chosen People was a special kind of contract marked by loving kindness


refers to the Holy Spirit teaching truth through the Bible without destroying the free and personal activity of the human writer, how the holy spirit inspired writers


good news, Jesus is the good news, preaching about Jesus is good news, four gospels


gospel writer, uniquely talented author whom the Holy Spirit inspired


the official list of inspired books of the Bible, Catholics list 46 OT and 27 NT




formal letter

"catholic" epistles

The five New Testament epistles (James, I and II Peter, I John, and Jude) that were addressed to the universal church rather than to particular Christian communities, universal letters

oral tradition

stories passed down through generations by word of mouth


preaching to unbelievers




oral instruction, sound down


worship of the Christians, public worship


Christ's second coming


the authority to teach religious doctrine


taking the same point of view, seen together


from the German Quelle, meaning source, collection of sayings of Jesus


Mathew's unique material


Luke's unique material

miracle story

one of the forms of narrative found in the gospels, healing, exorcism, nature, and raising from the dead


a spoken or written account of connected events, story in the bible


a short allegorical story designed to illustrate or teach some truth, religious principle, or moral lesson, a vivid story to convey a religious truth


the Latin version of the Bible, prepared chiefly by Saint Jerome at the end of the 4th century a.d., and used as the authorized version of the Roman Catholic Church, means "common"


a representation of an abstract or spiritual meaning through concrete or material forms; figurative treatment of one subject under the guise of another, more symbolic sayings


an extravagant statement or figure of speech not intended to be taken literally, as "to wait an eternity"

Number of books in the Old Testament


Number of books in the New Testament


Gospel of Thomas

example to show a gospel not included, how to be a gospel- wide spread acceptance, conformity to the rule of faith, apostolic origin

formation of the Gospels

The life, mission and resurrection of Jesus, The post-resurrection teaching of the apostles, The actual writing of the gospels by the evangelists.

Historical-Literary method

to discover the biblical author's intended meaning, used to analyze the bible not criticize

source criticism

tries to determine what source or sources the gospel and other New Testament writers used to compose their works, the synoptic gospels, Mark, Mathew- contains 80% of Mark, Luke- contains 50% of Mark, Q

Historical Criticism

discovers the literal sense- what did the evangelist really want to say, what is reported about Jesus- can it be traced back to him, linguistic analysis- language, originality-"criterion of dissimilarity", convergence- Mathew and Luke birth of Jesus- come together, consistency- if they are consistent in the gospel it is real

Form Criticism

helps us read the gospels intelligently, helps us understand what kind of writing we are dealing with, genre, type of writing

Redaction Criticism

to edit, original authors and editors, evangelists as editors, tries to discover the particular theological slant or insight of the given writer and how this influenced his arrangement of the material, wrote for an audience, each had a theological theme

Audience of each

Mathew- Jewish-Christians, Mark- local church that experienced great suffering, Luke-Gentile-Christians, John- various churches around the Roman empire

Textual Criticism

minor changes and mistakes the copiers made

722 BC

Assyrian exile

587 BC

fall of the Temple

587-533 BC

Babylonian Exile

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