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G= Growth cells grow, do their job at the end of this the cell decides whether or not it wants to have kids.


cells copy all 46 pieces of DNA in the nucleus (replication) DNA unzips and fills in with matching nucelotides adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine. If you want to make 2 cells, each new cell is going to need its own copy.


the cell copies its organelles.


centrioles to the opposite ends of the cell nucleus goes away DNA coils up into chromosones.

mitosis -metaphase

the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.


the 2 copies that make up the X are split aprt and 1 copy goes to each side of the cell near the centrioles, the organelles are split up during the phase as well.


the 2 copies that make up the X are split apart and 1 copy goes to each side of the cell (near the centrioles) the organelles are split up during this phase as well

mitosis telophase

the cell begins to pinch apart in the middle cleavage 2 new nuclei begin to form.


the two cells split apart end reslut new identical cells.


when DNA is loose and relaxed and looks like sphagetti. can only look like this when its inside the nucleus and protected.


1 copy 1/2 of an X.

sister chromotids

are two identical copies of a chromatin connected by a centromere.

homologous chromosomes

one of each pair comes from your mom and the other from dad these pairs are called?


an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells.

meiosis prophase

nucleus disappears cenrioles move to opposite ends of the cell and produce spindle fibers. DNA condenses into chromosones. homologous chromosones find eachother.

meiosis metaphase

homologous pairs line up in the middle of the cell

meiosos anaphase

homologous pairs are seperated and move towards opposite ends of the cell.

meiosis telephase

cell begins to pinch apart sometimes a new nucleus forms these new cells are not identical these new cells are not identical they have 1/2 the original amount of DNA 1 set and are now haploid.

meiosis 2

just like mitosis just with 2 cells instead of 1. in between meiosis 1 and 2 some cells go through another interphase but many do not. the end result is 4 haploid cells gametes.

downs syndrome

trisonmy of the 21st chromosome low muscle tone babies appear floppy flat facial features with a small nose upward slant to eyes small skin folds on the inner corner heart problems

turners syndrome

x chromosome monosomy only X female XO short do not mature sexually some physical abnormalities webbed neck mental retardation not increase over normal.

kleinfelters syndrome

male XXY enlarged breasts sparse facial hair and body hair small testes inability to produce sperm.

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