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22 terms

Cell Cycle, Mitosis and meiosis

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G1
G= Growth cells grow, do their job at the end of this the cell decides whether or not it wants to have kids.
Synthesis
cells copy all 46 pieces of DNA in the nucleus (replication) DNA unzips and fills in with matching nucelotides adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine. If you want to make 2 cells, each new cell is going to need its own copy.
G2
the cell copies its organelles.
mitosis-prophase
centrioles to the opposite ends of the cell nucleus goes away DNA coils up into chromosones.
mitosis -metaphase
the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.
mitosis-anaphase
the 2 copies that make up the X are split aprt and 1 copy goes to each side of the cell near the centrioles, the organelles are split up during the phase as well.
mitosis-anaphase
the 2 copies that make up the X are split apart and 1 copy goes to each side of the cell (near the centrioles) the organelles are split up during this phase as well
mitosis telophase
the cell begins to pinch apart in the middle cleavage 2 new nuclei begin to form.
cytokinesis
the two cells split apart end reslut new identical cells.
chromatin
when DNA is loose and relaxed and looks like sphagetti. can only look like this when its inside the nucleus and protected.
chromotid
1 copy 1/2 of an X.
sister chromotids
are two identical copies of a chromatin connected by a centromere.
homologous chromosomes
one of each pair comes from your mom and the other from dad these pairs are called?
chromosones
an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells.
meiosis prophase
nucleus disappears cenrioles move to opposite ends of the cell and produce spindle fibers. DNA condenses into chromosones. homologous chromosones find eachother.
meiosis metaphase
homologous pairs line up in the middle of the cell
meiosos anaphase
homologous pairs are seperated and move towards opposite ends of the cell.
meiosis telephase
cell begins to pinch apart sometimes a new nucleus forms these new cells are not identical these new cells are not identical they have 1/2 the original amount of DNA 1 set and are now haploid.
meiosis 2
just like mitosis just with 2 cells instead of 1. in between meiosis 1 and 2 some cells go through another interphase but many do not. the end result is 4 haploid cells gametes.
downs syndrome
trisonmy of the 21st chromosome low muscle tone babies appear floppy flat facial features with a small nose upward slant to eyes small skin folds on the inner corner heart problems
turners syndrome
x chromosome monosomy only X female XO short do not mature sexually some physical abnormalities webbed neck mental retardation not increase over normal.
kleinfelters syndrome
male XXY enlarged breasts sparse facial hair and body hair small testes inability to produce sperm.